Christ the pilgrim on the road to Emmaus

13. Sermon Preached on Easter Monday 1539

By Bernardino Ochino da Siena

Translated by Patrick Colbourne OFM Cap

Translator’s note: This translation is based on the introduction, text and footnotes which were published by P. Costanzo Cargnoni O.F.M. Cap. in I Frati Cappuccini: Documenti e testimonianze dell primo secolo, Edizioni Frate Indovino, Perugia, vol III/1, pages 2255-2270. The only additions to the notes made by the translator are references to Francis of Assisi: The Early Documents, edited by Regis Armstrong, O.F.M. Cap., J. A. Wayne Hellmann, O.F.M. and William J. Short O.F.M. Conv., New York City Press, New York, London, Manila, for an English version of quotations from the Writings or Biographies of St Francis.

Introduction by Costanzo Cargnoni OFM Cap

The “good news” in this sermon is that Christ was full of “the utmost charity and love.” To demonstrate this Ochino makes use of the Gospel of the day that speaks about the disciples at Emmaus who were perplexed and sad on account of the death of the Master. He says that we have “to break open and bite through the crust of the literal meaning” of the word of God to extract its fertile spiritual meaning. It is not sufficient to stop at the literal meaning, at what is actually visible, but we should do what Mary did when “she ponders over exalted secrets” in her heart. He says that “it is not such a difficult thing to set aside the pleasures of the world in order to delight in Christ”. We should look at the cross, the poverty and Christ’s sufferings and then we will find out what real joy is. Ochino goes along with the two disciples as they are travelling along the road, by reconstructing, in his imagination, their sad conversation, with one not believing that Christ who had died on the cross was the Son of God, and the other, on the other hand, thinking about Christ’s life on earth, and recalling the many prophesies and looking back at the Sacred Scriptures and thereby discovering many reasons for believing that Christ really was the Son of God. At this point the Risen Christ comes up to them disguised as a pilgrim and joins in on the conversation. Ochino briefly relates the rest of the Gospel passage up to the invitation: Mane nobiscum, Domine. Christ, the pilgrim, provides the opportunity to make a comparison with the “spiritual soul” that ought to undertake a pilgrimage until it is enlightened by faith, until the “countless gifts received from God” have been revealed and a hymn of thanksgiving and burning love breaks out in the heart.

13. Sermon Preached on Easter Monday 1539[1]

5758 Even though all of God’s works and accomplishments are evident, nevertheless, God’s wisdom, omnipotence, generosity, graces, virtues, happiness, charity and finally his abundant perfection is supremely evident in Christ. Therefore, I want to say a few words about today’s Gospel[2] in which we see the tremendous charity and love that Christ has for his chosen ones. This is a new and wonderful kind of charity that I want to explain to you. Therefore, let us go through the Gospel in detail, taking it apart and biting through the crust of the literal meaning of this holy Gospel to extract the spiritual elements. I think that this will produce useful material. Therefore, listen carefully and let us begin in the name of Jesus.

[The disciples from Emmaus]

5759 Two of Christ’s disciples who were perplexed by Christ’s death and who were afraid that the Jews would persecute them because they had been Christ’s disciples, left the Holy City of Jerusalem and went to a village called Emmaus, about seven and a half miles from Jerusalem. They were talking about what had happened to their master. They thought that as they had lost their master that it was better to leave the Holy City and go to a small village. Christ joined them and remained with them until nightfall. Then the two disciples, even though they did not know him, pressed him to stay with them and so he stayed on. When they were sitting at the table, cognoverunt eum in fractione panis.[3] Oh, they recognised Christ in the breaking of bread. It is a great mystery that they recognised Christ in the breaking of bread.

[The recognition of Christ in the breaking of bread]

Some think about gifts in a superficial manner, concentrating just on a particular gift and going no further and because they stop at that they do not profit from it and do not experience anything. It is necessary to break open and bite through the crust and not simply think about the benefit itself but also of the many treasures that it contains. Then one should consider who the benefactor is and how magnificent he is. You should think about yourself as the recipient of the gift and what a vile creature you are and how of all the things that God created on earth none has been as rebellious as mankind. Look at how the plants always obey the rules that God has given them. The rivers never turn back on their original course. The heavens and everything else never stop moving; only rational creatures do this by sinning against God who made them.

5760 Consider why the gift was given. It was certainly not given because you deserved it. It was only because of his burning love that you have received so many gifts, so many graces, such enlightenment and so many treasures. If you go through this analysis you will be forced to acknowledge that your benefactor was Christ, who was God.[4]

Among us there are those who rely entirely on sense knowledge and who only see created things and stop at that without going any further. They are delighted by the created things that they can see on earth. They should not stop there but immediate break and eat bread, saying: God created all of this for us to use, so that it would be useful in supplying what we need. We ought to thank him for the many gifts and graces that he has given the human race. At this point you would begin to appreciate infinitely God’s omnipotence, wisdom and generosity so that when you have broken this bread you will come to know God.

Others contemplate God in natural phenomena and investigate what are the causes of things. However, they do not go beyond this kind of speculation. They do not rise up to heaven. Do not be like the worldly-wise who stop at created objects. You should carefully break this bread and firmly grasp that all of this was produced ab aeterno by God because of his omnipotence and generosity. By doing this you will come to the knowledge of God.

There are those among us who study the Sacred Scripture, the Old and the New Testaments, but do it superficially, focusing on the letter and only considering the events in the story. However, it is also necessary for you to take the characters apart as well as the events, making comparisons and thinking about how everything came to fulfilment in Christ and therefore how all of this was a clue through which we could come to know the truth.

5761 Among us there are some who contemplate Christ’s conception, his birth and his time in Egypt but only as natural, human events. However, they should break these up by contemplating where he had come from, and for what purpose. You will find that there was no other reason other than the heartfelt love that he had for us and then you will come to know God.

Praeterea, there are some who contemplate Christ on the cross, his suffering, the thorns, the nails and the lashes. However, you should break this bread, so that you can chew it and turn it over as Mary did when conservabat omnia verba haec, conferens in corde suo.[5] She also ruminated on other heavenly secrets. You too should not only consider the Passion, the sufferings and the pain but also think about the reason for these things, and you will find that there was no other reason except his ardent love that made him come down from heaven to earth to pay for our sins, immo to transform us into himself. He did not need us, or our works. He wanted to give us heaven, to turn us into being gods so that when you break this bread, when you make it break into pieces and chew it well, you will get to know Christ and God by doing this. While the crust is intact you will not gain this knowledge, and if you do not have it you will not become fervent and enflamed, so as to love him and recognise the countless treasures that he has given the human race. Therefore, break it, tear it apart and ruminate, so that Christ will show himself to you as he did to the two disciples. Let us pause for a brief moment.

5762 It is not a big thing to put aside the pleasures of the world in order to take up what is pleasing to Christ since this is much greater and makes you desire to have more[6] as you develop a taste for it and for the spiritual sweetness that cannot be found in worldly things. It will become pleasant to give up wealth and worldly treasures to gain what pertains to Christ, since this is supremely better than anything. Virtue consists in abandoning worldly pleasure for the cross of Christ, worldly wealth for Christ’s poverty, worldly honours and status for the shame and insults that were heaped on Christ. This is of what perfection is made, rather than in having an experience of Christ as sweet, Christ as pleasing, Christ as soft.

Note that the disciples followed Christ because he was amiable, his words and what he preached was sweet and his conversation was so kind because they were still full of self-love, until the Holy Spirit came upon them and made them strong and sinless. However, up to that time they followed Christ for their own gratification. They were not following him for spiritual reasons, but because they experienced incomparable sweetness and inestimable fulfilment. However, as Christ came closer to his Passion, anxiety and suffering, they all lost faith in him, with some abandoning him, others taking flight, denying him or betraying him so that each one stepped back and did not follow him during his Passion, with the exception of Mary.

[The sad conversation along the road]

5763 When the two disciples who are featured in today’s Gospel lost Christ through his death, they became sad and melancholy because they had lost the spiritual pleasure and contentment they had experienced while Christ was with them. Weighed down with sadness they left the Holy City and went to Emmaus. As they were talking to each other it seems[7] that one of them felt greatly upset and disturbed in his soul and was looking for someone who was dear to him and whom he trusted, someone to whom he could open his heart and express his bitterness and thus gain some relief. What happened to these disciples is that after they left the Holy City loquebantur ad invicem de his omnibus quae accidderant.[8] They went along talking, but the Gospel says nothing about what they were saying.

How we might easily imagine[9] that one of them said: “Oh how really amazing it is that our Master who was more holy and more virtuous than anyone that I have ever seen, who only acted in a way that was good and divine, should then suffer a cruel death and be scorned and abused! I have certainly been mistaken for I believed that he was the Son of God, but if that was who he was he would not have suffered such a cruel death. I feel so bitter and do not know what to believe about him.”

To this the other one responded: “You know that you have made a serious mistake and that I believe just the opposite. Now what I thought about him being the Son of God has been confirmed and my opinion has been vindicated. When I rid myself of human praise and self-love and permit myself to be guided by the spirit of our Master, which I feel within me, I will surely go to the city of Jerusalem to profess that Christ was the Son of God. If I were to be placed on the cross just as he was I would not be concerned, and you would see, as he himself said, si mundus vos odit, scitote quia me priorem vobis odio habuit.[10] Precisely because the world hated him I am certain that he is the Son of God and his works were not part of the world. Immo he always exposed the sad and wicked world. Without making any excuses he rebuked those who belonged to the world and bore witness saying: Quia opera eius mala sunt,[11] that what the world and the Scribes and the Pharisees did was sad and wicked. The more perfect a person is, the more the world and wicked people hate him.

5764 Hinc est, that there has never been a person who could equal Christ’s goodness and perfection because he was both God and man. Because he was opposed to them and audaciously uncovered the faults and sins of the leaders and the Pharisees whereas no one had ever opposed them so strongly, and this was why the disciples said that they imposed on him a most bitter death that was more abominable than any other person had ever endured.

Praeterea if you do not think that he was the Son of God go and read the Sacred Scriptures and see his teaching and you will not be able to find the slightest defective item as you will in other laws. Immo it is impossible to add the slightest thing to Christ’s laws or teachings that would improve them since everything is contained splendidly in the law of Christ.

Praeterea I cannot find anything that guarantees earthly things in Christ’s law. His way of life only guarantees toil and struggle. We note that he did not want to be born in circumstances of grandeur as the world sees it, but rather in a situation that was extremely poor. He never went after the pleasures of the senses because he always aspired to have the things of the spirit and of heaven. He taught the same thing to his disciples.

Praeteria we have seen how when they wanted to make him king, he did not want to accept it, because he said that his kingdom was not here.[12] He wanted the same thing for his Apostles and did not want them to be Lords, but poor, humble sinners. All of this proves to me that he was the Son of God.

Praeterea we can see that he did not seek the friendship of powerful people or of Lords so that he could become important but continually avoided them. Immo he reproved them for their faults most bitterly without showing any human respect. There were many other signs and all of them make me believe that he was the Son of God.” Let us take a short break.

5765 The first disciple answered: “You have expressed the truth very well; when you said that it would be great if he were the Son of God. However, I say that if he was not the Son of God, he was the wickedest and the most arrogant man that ever attempted to mislead and claim to be someone other than who he really was. Then what he had laid down could not last and we would soon see that he was not the Son of God and his teachings would be flung down on the ground. If indeed he was the Son of God, his teachings would be held in higher regard now that he was dead and increase in value every day. Then it might even have been possible for him to have risen as the women had reported.[13] However, to tell the truth, you cannot believe much of what women say”.

To this the other disciple replied: “Oh, I think that you still have doubts. It appears to me to be very clear and certain that he was the Son of God. Tell me this. Have you forgotten how he predicted his Passion: Ecce ascendimus Hierosolimam et filius hominis tradetur principibus sacerdotum et scribis et condemnabunt eum morte et tradent eum gentibus ad illudendum et flagellandum et crucifigendum et tertia die resurget?[14] It seems to me that he predicted all that was to happen to him. The Son of God would be taken before the chief priests and the scribes who would pass the cruel sentence condemning him to death and who handed him over to the Gentiles who mistreated him, flogged him and crucified him until he finally died. Because he was the Son of God, concerning which I am certain, he could have escaped from the evil wrath of the Jews had he wanted to, just as we had seen him do when they wanted to stone him, abscondit se et exivit de templo,[15] and when they wanted to arrest him and he fled into the desert. He could have done the same thing with regard to his death and his Passion, but he did not want to. He simply wanted to give himself up as an immaculate lamb to make satisfaction for sin.

5766 Praetera, where could I find a person in whom all the symbols and prophesies in Sacred Scripture are fulfilled? It appears to me that they were certainly not fulfilled in anyone but Christ. What they contain applies to him. It begins with Abraham of whom it was said: In semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes.[16] It continues with David, to whom it was said: De fructu ventris tui ponam super sedem tua.[17] It continues with Isaiah to whom it was said that a virgin would have a child and would call him Jesus and his kingdom would go on without end.[18] Micah said where he was to be born: Et tu Bethleem, terra Iuda.[19] He had been prefigured and been the subject of prophesies hundreds and thousands of years before, all of which came from the mouth of God who cannot be wrong, and which said that he was the true Messiah who would come to free us. His Passion had also been foretold and because of this we have to believe firmly that he was the true Messiah and that none other than he was to come, because every figure and everything in Sacred Scripture was fully completed in Christ.

However, more than anything else what makes me believe is that I cannot find any other person in the Old Testament, including Abel, whom God commended for his innocence when offering a good and perfect sacrifice. Noah too was commended for his modesty, Abraham for his faith, Isaac for his obedience, Jacob for his ability to be caring, Joseph for his dreams, Moses for his prayer, Aaron for his implementation of God’s word, David for his prophesising, Solomon for his charity, Judas Maccabeus for his honesty, St John the Baptist for his works of penance and so on with all the other holy fathers who excelled in one or other of the virtues. However, with respect to our Master if you think about these virtues or any virtues you will find that they existed to the highest degree in Christ and immo more abundantly that ever.

5767 Do you want to see an even greater sign that is very exalted and sublime and that was proclaimed by both God and the whole of creation? The most prominent sign was his conception which was miraculous with God sending an Angel to announce a great mystery. His conception was not like the conception of other human beings. He started to receive adulation while in his Mother’s womb, when our Lady went up into the mountains of Galilee and Elizabeth felt St John, who was in her womb, praise and adore the Son of God. Elizabeth burst out into joyful song and Zachary, who had been unable to speak for some time, had his tongue unbound and said: Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel, quia visitavit et fecit redemptionem plebis suae.[20]

Look at him then when he was born, the Angels sangg: Gloria in excelsis Deo.[21] I look at the Magi who came from the East to adore him. I think about the unusual appearance of the star in the heavens which served to guide them. I think about how he was recognised by some people during a period of thirty years. First of all, I consider the Apostles who at his call left their families and their homes and followed him, and not because he had promised them any material benefit. He only promised them anxiety, privation and crosses, and yet they followed him. Peter said: Tu es Christus, Filius Dei. [22] The Canaanite woman said: Miserere mihi, fili David.[23] The Centurion said: Domine., non sum dignus.[24] The Samaritan woman said: Numquid ipse est Christus?[25] When it came to baptising Christ in the Jordan, St John the Baptisr was trembling and he heard a divine voice that said: Hic est Filius meus dilectus, in quo mihi bene complacui.[26] Nathaniel said: Vere hic est Filius Dei.[27] Many others said something similar.

5768 Not only his disciples but even those who were distressed and those who were persecuting him were forced to admit that he was God and that he possessed greater power than human power. This is why the Pharisees said: Si dimittimus eum sic, omnes credent in eum.[28] Caiaphas said: Expedit vobis ut unus moriatur homo pro populo.[29] Hearing this one could have no doubt that he was the Lord of all and that his wisdom and power were supernatural.

Pilot also recognised that he was the Son of God. Because of this he made many attempts to set him free. If Christ had said just one word, he would have freed him. Therefore, when he could go no further, he said: Innocens ego sum a sanguine iusti huius.[30] Pilot’s wife sent him word to tell him that on no account should he sentence him to death: Nihil tibi et iusto illi.[31] What more do you want than what Judas the traitor said: Peccavi tradens sanguinem iustum.[32] Then there is the thief on the cross, who had never done anything except what was evil or rebellious, yet when he saw Christ on the cross, not as King or Lord, but being mocked, abused and vilified, he still recognised him to be the Son of God and therefore he said: Memento mei, dum veneris in regnum tuum.[33] Because of what he said he merited to be the first one to enter paradise.

After Christ had died I hear the Centurion saying: Vere Filius Dei erat iste.[34] I also see that at his death the sun was darkened, the earth shook and the veil of the Temple was torn, tombs were opened[35] and there were many amazing signs in heaven and on earth. Such things had never happened when any other person died. Therefore there is no room for doubt; simply accept it as certain that he was the Son of God, and that he freed us not from the seventy years of slavery in Babylon, not from the fifty years of exile, or from any other captivity that might had lasted for a hundred or for thirty years, but that he freed the human race from everlasting death and gave us heaven and all his glory as he had promised. Let us pause for a short time.

[Christ the pilgrim]

5769 Et factum est dum fabularentur et se componerent.[36] While they were talking things over together Christ joined them in the guise of a pilgrim. Note that while they were talking about him, he was there with them. He said to them: “Qui sunt hi sermones quos confertis ad invicem?[37] What are you talking over with one another?” Not recognising him Cleopas answered: “Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who does not know what was going on in these days?”[38] Note the expression: Tu solus peregrinus. You will appreciate that when you have something that is very fixed in your heart you think that everyone can understand you without you having to explain anything. Perhaps this expression might mean: out of all the strangers that are in Jerusalem you are the only one who did not witness the spectacle that took place last Friday. Tu solus peregrinus might also mean: you are the one who was to come down from heaven to earth departing from the right hand of the Father to come to this dark and cloudy valley and take on all our weaknesses and wretchedness and by your precious blood redeem us from the hands of Lucifer and pay for all of our sins.

Christ replied: “What have you to say about Jesus of Nazareth?” They said: “That he was a great prophet in what he said and did and that he was condemned to death by the high priests and leaders and they crucified him when we had hoped that he would have redeemed Israel and three days have passed since this happened and he has still not risen. It is true that our women said that they went to the tomb and they met Angels who told them that he had actually risen.[39] However, you know that you cannot put much faith in what women say because they are too quick to believe.”

5770 Under the disguise of a pilgrim Christ replied to these words: O stulti et tardi corde ad credendum in omnibus quae locuti sunt prophetae! Nonne oportuit Christum pati et ita intrare in gloriam suam?[40] If there was time enough I would now explain to you how all the figures and the many prophesies contained in Sacred Scripture[41] were fulfilled in the mystical body of Christ who was man and God. However, not to delay you as we do not have much time I will not do this. It is enough that starting from Moses and all the Prophets that spoke about him we interpret what was said simply and clearly.

As they approached the village of Emmaus he pretended to want to go further on so as to arouse them a little more. However, charmed by his sweet words and teaching the two disciples, coegerunt illum, politely put pressure on him saying: Mane nobiscum, Domine, quoniam advesperascit, et inclinata est iam dies.[42] Oh, Lord, do not leave us without your grace, without which all that we can do is commit sin and do what is evil. Therefore, remain with us with your mercy and enlightenment, quoniam advesperascit, because you can see the extent of our misery, and how close we are to the dangers, anxieties and worries of the world. Et Inclinata est iam dies. Night will come when the sun is no longer in the sky. It is like this for us when Christ, the sun of justice, departs from us, and the night of our darkness and of our blindness comes on and we become lukewarm. When the night of death comes, we see hell opening. Therefore: Mane nobiscum Domine, quoniam advesperascit.

5771 Note that Christ has assumed the appearance of a pilgrim and this would mean that he should rise early to go on with his journey.[43] Christ had done this when in in his mother’s womb he began to show an ardent love for the human race and so too the spiritual person makes an early start by performing good works, by falling in love with Christ and by performing the works of the virtues and of the love of God and one’s neighbour, and not postponing it like worldly people do who wait until they are decrepit and confined to bed before performing any good works.

A pilgrim will still go through Venegia and look at the palaces, the temples and other things of beauty. However, he does not stop but continues on his journey. Thus, he does not want to become a person of some repute, or laden with treasures, but to remain poor and abject with just the minimum for survival. So too the spiritual creature, even if he is possesses worldly wealth, honours and status, is not concerned about that or any created thing, but moves along life as very fast river, not being worried about his own welfare but about giving glory to God as the one who is the Creator of all, delaying at nothing so as to reach his objective that is God.

Praeterea, if he is injured or receives a knock the pilgrim does not seek revenge, because he is not in his homeland and is not stopping here but passing through. The same may be said of Christ. He was more hurt, offended and cast aside than any pilgrim and yet, like an angel, taking holy revenge with great meekness, humility and sweet words, he prayed to his Father for his enemies, for those who crucified him.

Even when he has been offended the spiritual creature likewise should not be vindictive. He should not be sensitive about the offenses except in so far as he recognises that they are an offense against God. Out of love of God he should banish all hatred and anger from his heart. He should exercise charity towards everyone and love them in Christ as members of the Church Militant.

In this way you will be imitating Christ the pilgrim who when the two disciples prevailed upon him to stay with them for the evening meal remained seated at the table. When he blessed the bread, as was his custom, he broke it and passed it round and then their eyes were opened, and they recognised who he was. Christ then disappeared from them. This amazed them and they began to say to one another: Nonne cor nostrum ardens erat in nobis, dum loqueretur in via?[44]

[Conclusion: “Foolish ones and slow of heart”]

5772 “Oh how foolish was our intellect and how sluggish was our heart in not recognising him? Oh how our heart burnt at his sweet words?” They got up rapidly from the table and returned to the Holy City and went in search of the eleven Apostles and told them whom they had met. The eleven said the same thing that Christ had truly risen and had appeared to Peter.[45]

My Vinegia, whoever is in love with Christ does not care about anything as long as he possesses him. Look at these two disciples: having got up from table they did not care about the evening meal and forgetting about themselves they ran to Jerusalem. Look at the Samaritan woman, because of the little bit of enlightenment she experienced in a flash concerning Christ, she left the well and the ropes and ran into Samaria so that the entire city hastened to pay honour to Christ, to recognise Christ and to believe in Christ.[46]

So all the eleven said together: O stulti et tardi corde ad credendum![47] “Oh have we not been foolish?” Peter said: “Was I not foolish and being too hasty when I thought that he was not the Son of God?” Philip said the same thing: “Oh was I not being silly when I demanded: Domine, ostende nobis Patrem et sufficit nobis?[48] Was it not evident the Eternal Father and you were one?” Andrew said: “Was I not quite stupid when after seeing him perform so many signs and miracles I still doubted that he could multiply the five loaves and two fish to feed five thousand or more persons?” [49] John and James said the same thing. When their mother asked if one could sit on the right and the other on the left they were thinking that he would rule over a temporal kingdom.[50] It was the same with the two disciples in the boat which they thought was sinking and they said: Dominus est.[51]

Later they all said: “Oh how foolish was Judas to think that his sin was greater than God’s mercy,[52] when Peter was forgiven and converted by a single glance and made the head of the Church. Christ would have done the same for Judas. Would not Christ have done the same for Judas if he was sorry and contrite about his sin? Each of them lost out because of their hardness of heart and lack of faith.

5773 They said: Nonne cor nostrum erat ardens in nobis,[53] Oh how we glowed with wonder when we had the Son of God among us in such a natural form. Oh did we not burn when he called us his dearly beloved disciples with so much charity and love? Were we not on fire when he taught us about his precepts and so sweetly showed us the way to heaven? We ought to have been more moved by his touching and sweet sermons. Should we not have been moved even more when we saw his pain and suffering, when we saw how he was flogged and ridiculed and ultimately when he lost so much blood on the cross all for us?”

You too, beloved soul, should say: “Nonne cor nostrum ardens erat in nobis? Oh how I ought to be on fire when you showed me yesterday what a gift, what a treasure you who are God have given to my soul in giving me yourself as food, and in giving me the knowledge and the enlightenment of how to repent of my sins before I die?” Perhaps someone who has received communion has already begun to enter the night of the wretchedness of sin! This is the space that you create between yourselves and God through your emotions. My Venegia, do not let this happen to you. Rather chew, ruminate and consider the many gifts that you have received from God. As you read in the old law animals that did not chew the cud were unclean,[54] and thus we are unclean when we wander carelessly like the wild animals. Therefore, shake yourselves, I beg you, to recognise, consider and thank God for all his gifts and holy love, so that you will become one of those who are happy and blessed. Amen.

  1. That was Easter Monday (lundí dell’ Angelo = Angel’s Monday) which in 1539 fell on 7th April.
  2. The Gospel about the disciples on the road to Emmaus: Lk 24:13-35.
  3. Lk 24:35
  4. Note the progressive development of thought which suggests how to make a meditation in order to come to know the loving God, as he will explain later.
  5. Lk 2:19
  6. Giotto in the text = ghiotto, goloso.
  7. Acasca in the text = succeed, accade
  8. Lk 24:14
  9. Here begins the conversation between the two as Ochino imagined it. One believed that Christ on the cross was the Son of God and the other did not. The disciple who believed this almost anticipates the explanation given by Christ.
  10. Jn 15:18
  11. Jn 3:19
  12. Jn 6:15; 18:36
  13. Cf. Lk 24:22-23
  14. Mt 20:18
  15. Jn 8:59
  16. Gen 22:18; 26:4
  17. Ps 131:11 (Vulg.)
  18. Is 7:14
  19. Mt 5:2; Mt 2:6
  20. Lk 1:68
  21. Lk 2:14
  22. Lk 16:16
  23. Mt 15:22
  24. Mt 8:8
  25. Jn 4:29
  26. Mt 3:17; 1 Pt 1:17
  27. Jn 1:49
  28. Jn 11:48
  29. Jn 11:50
  30. Mt 27:24
  31. Mt 27:19
  32. Mt 27:4
  33. Lk 23:42
  34. Lk 23:47
  35. Cf. Mt 27:51-53
  36. Lk 24:15
  37. Lk 24:17
  38. Lk 24:18
  39. Lk 24:19-24
  40. Lk 24:25-26
  41. Ochino abbreviates things here because he had already put many of these prophesies on the lips of one of the two disciples.
  42. Lk 24:27-29
  43. Compare this parallel between a pilgrim and the Christian soul with what Ochino wrote in Dialogo VII where he is speaking about a “pilgrimage”. Cf above nn. 4081-4093
  44. Lk 24:30-31
  45. Lk 24:34
  46. Jn 4:28-29
  47. Lk 24:25
  48. Jn 14:8
  49. Cf. Jn 6:9
  50. Cf. Mt 20:20-22
  51. He has joined together the events narrated by the Gospel: Lk 8:23-25; Mt 8:24-27; Mk 4:36-43; Jn 21:7
  52. Cf. Mt 27:3-5
  53. Cf. Lk 22:61-62; Jn 21:15-19
  54. Lev 11:2ss; Dt 14: 4ss