Commissio Constitutionum OFMCap.
DRAFT OUTLINE OF OUR CONSTITUTIONS FOR THE LXXXIV GENERAL CHAPTER
Chapter VII: Our life of penance
Second Proposed Revision (PdR 2)
Rome — General Curia — 2012
Table of Contents
- N. 110 (101)
- N. 111 (102)
- N. 112 (103+104,3)
- N. 113 (104)
- N. 114 (105)
- N. 115 (106)
- N. 116 (107)
- N. 117 (108)
At the end of October 2009 all the Commission members were sent some material relating to the revision of chapter VII of the Constitutions. This formed the basis for the work of the sub-committee, and later of the Commission itself. The text underwent repeated scrutiny and study during the VIII plenary Session held at the General Curia from 15-27 February 2010. Out of this came the first Proposed Revision (PdR1), which was sent to the Order in March 2010.
In the XII plenary session from 4-14 July 2011 the Commission resumed work on chapter VII in the light of the feedback received from the Order, which was mostly appreciative of PdR1. There were also many observations and proposals for change, to which the Commission gave careful attention. Hence, in this new Proposed Revision (PdR2) 15 of the 47 paragraphs in PdR1 have been modified. In several cases the text has been slimmed down and made more precise, with new drafts and positioning of the paragraphs.
In the Explanatory Notes justification is given for each change made, but the further additions made in the final part should be pointed out: these concern brothers who are in difficulties or who have sinned. PdR1 (cf. n. 119,2) had already expanded the current text (n. 108), and this was appreciated by the Order. But we received several observations and proposals for alternative texts, suggesting that we provide legislation reflecting Christian and Franciscan sensitivities on these issues, and at the same time tackle the various aspects of the problems involved in correcting the brothers who sin. In the light of numerous suggestions, PdR2 (cf. n. 117) offers a new formulation. This comes in the light of the many proposals received from the Order and of wide-ranging, fraternal debate within the Commission itself. While the text reflects current problems being experienced especially in some areas, it has universal value. The General Chapter will be able to reflect further on the text, even improving the wording, which in some aspects (note, for example, the use of the term delict) departs from the formulations that are characteristic of our Constitutions.
As we had already done in the presentation of PdR1, it seems appropriate to list here the aspects which the Commission wished to highlight particularly in revising chapter VII of the Constitutions. These relate to:
- the relationship between discipleship and conversion, in the light of the conditions which the Gospel requires for the sequela Christi (cf. PdR2, n. 110,2);
- the relationship between interior conversion and the external practice of penance (cf. PdR2, n. 111,1);
- the meaning and purpose of ascetical penance (cf. PdR2, n. 111);
- the need to highlight the classic triad of fasting, prayer and works of mercy, and the link between the three elements, each of which calls for the others(cf. PdR2, n. 112,3);
- the need to monitor the practice of penance, both individual and communal, especially in the local chapter (cf. PdR2, n. 114,2-3);
- the need to place more stress on the sacrament of penance, and on the presence and action of the Holy Spirit within it (cf. PdR2, n. 115,1);
- spiritual direction and its purpose, accented more explicitly (cf. PdR2, n. 115,5);
- the relationship between charity and justice, and the need to respect the dignity of each person and of institutions (cf. PdR2, n. 117,2-3.5).
In carrying out its work the Commission paid particular attention to the Apostolic Constitution Paenitemini of Paul VI (17 February 1966) and the post-synodal Apostolic Exhortation Reconciliatio et Paenitentia of John Paul II (2 December 1984). The Explanatory Notes also detail the Commission’s assessments of the proposals contained in Project 2006, as well as the reference to the Constitutions of 1968 and to the document of the Special General Chapter of 1974: The life of penance and continuous conversion in the Order at the present time.
The Proposed Revision of Chapter VII consists of 8 numbers, as does the current text. Some of these numbers have been supplemented by the introduction of new sections, while some of the sections in the current text have been divided into two. There was, in our view, no material from chapter VII that needed to be transferred to the Complementary Code.
Chapter VII: OUR LIFE OF PENANCE (1)
(1) The title of the chapter The Friars’ Life of Penance is changed to Our Life of Penance, in line with the principle followed in previous chapters
(2) The original Latin text of the Constitutions has totalem mutationem, translated in the French editions of 1991 and 2001 and in the Italian edition of 1990 and 2002 as changement radical or mutamento radicale (= radical change). The term radical has a negative connotation, suggesting attitudes or actions that break with customary ways of behaviour, both human and religious (radical conduct). Total, on the other hand, has positive connotations. It appears that the Apostolic Exhortation Vita Consecrata (= VC) states a preference for totality over radicalism here. In this connection it can be noted: “Radical renunciation, just as it is not sufficient to express gospel perfection, is equally insufficient as a description of the consecrated life: it is activated by, and linked primarily to, one’s total belonging to God. One leaves something in order to follow, to enter into the life of Christ, and to be totally absorbed by it. Since the purpose of the consecrated life is “conformity to the Lord Jesus in his total self-giving” (VC 65), it is evident that absolutely everything must be invested and all energies spent. Therefore the Apostolic Exhortation, speaking about the meaning of a vocation to the consecrated life, stresses the fact that it is “an initiative coming wholly from the Father, … comparable to a genuine holocaust.” (VC 17)” and perhaps underlines better the fact that the choice of religious life embraces and extends to all areas of life. In the context of a discourse on penance-conversion, chapter VII of the Constitutions chooses the adjective totalis, and in § 1 presents a positive vision of conversion: rather than stressing self-denial it places the accent on newness of life (cominciano a…) that flows from the total change. The text of the Constitutions, while not quoting Mk 1,15 explicitly, clearly derives from the passage, in which conversion is the response to a call. Christ’s declaration: “The time is fulfilled, and the Reign of God is at hand; repent, and believe in the Gospel” (Mk 1, 14-15) indicates the basic structure of the Christian life. It is in the indicative (the time is fulfilled – the reign of God is at hand), in other words, it announces a fact, God’s offer to humanity of a new possibility of life and understanding. The indicative is followed by an imperative (repent); a response must follow on the gift. There is an event that calls for our acceptance, our trust and our commitment to base our life upon it. Therefore, this passage in the constitutional text already has all the vigour called for by one evaluation [Prot. N.; VII-00001] “If, as “men of penance” (cf. 101, 4) we wish to live out the Gospel text: “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent and believe in the good news’ (Mk 1, 14-15), our whole life should be directed towards dedication and conversion. Our belief in the Gospel only becomes authentic when we devote ourselves to it with all our might and all our efforts are focused on being dedicated to the following of Christ. These words do not exclude a radical approach but speak of a complete change within ourselves, which demonstrates a different aspect of conversion, as described above, and which includes the same radical attitude. With regard to the Italian noun cambiamento (change) it should be noted that neither this word nor its Latin equivalent mutatio refer exclusively to material objects. The point made in one evaluation [cf. Prot. N.; VII- 000174] should be kept in mind when translations are made into other languages.
(3) In PdR1 it was noted: the opening words of the § have been changed because of the additions to the text, thus avoiding a repetition of conversion. At the same time, by saying This is … the text is in continuity with the preceding paragraph. The additions made to § 2, inspired by a formula suggested at the time by the C.C.L., restructure the text and link conversion directly with the following of Christ. Conversion is not a generic change, but is an invitation to penance in the pure sense of renunciation. Neither can it be reduced to a simple transition on the moral level. It is something quite different, a fact which the evangelist Mark underlines in his account of the calling of the first disciples (1,16-20). In this way he teaches us that conversion involves detachment and a following: “And immediately they left their nets and followed him”; “and leaving their father Zebedee in the boat with the men he employed, they went after him”. This is a search for freedom to embrace a new life-project, indicated by the verb followed. Conversion therefore means following the way of the Master.
However, this paragraph attracted a number of comments [Prot. N.; VII- 00034; Prot. N.; VII- 00166; Prot. N.; VII-00003; Prot. N.; VII- 00175] and seven proposals for alternative texts. The deletion of the expression “mortification of the body” was insisted upon with considerable force, because the phrase was thought restrictive, omitting the various components of the human person [Prot. N.; VII-00208; Prot. N.; VII- 00203] or because even the body must be respected [Prot.; VII- 00190]. Consequently, the Commission presents a longer text in this part of PdR2 which places more emphasis on the gradual process of our becoming a “new creature” and includes the means by which one arrives at conversion. Instead of “mortification of the body” we prefer “dying to whatever there is in us that draws us away from the love of Christ”. This avoids separation of body and spirit and embraces the whole ambit of conversion.
It should be noted, however, that the beginning of the paragraph This is the life of a new creature has been changed to The life of a new creature, which lessens the link with the preceding paragraph.
(4) The proposed text simply relates the conditions which Jesus himself requires for discipleship, combining self-renunciation, carrying the cross and following Christ. (cf. Mt 16,24; Mk 8,34; Lk 9,23). It follows from this that penance is an essential condition of following Christ; it is practised by following in the footsteps of Christ and with a view to doing so. Discipleship is a penitential journey; conversely, life in penitence is identified with discipleship. In fact for the disciple, self-renunciation implies ceasing to be faithful to self and to direct fidelity to Christ; the disciple must shift the center of his/her life, from self to Christ. This is the most profound detachment, much more significant than abandoning one’s parents or giving up one’s job.
(5) The proposed text is also confirmed by words from St Francis. In the Rnb (I,3) he quotes the Lord saying: “If anyone wishes to come after me, let him deny himself, take up his cross and follow me”; in the V Admonition he speaks of the only cause the human creature has for boasting: “But we can boast of our weaknesses and in carrying each day the holy cross of our Lord Jesus Christ”; in the Psalms [VII and XV] of the Office of the Passion, he twice exhorts the brothers: “Offer your bodies and carry his holy cross and follow his most holy commands even to the end”. In these two texts, the cross we are to carry is not our own cross but the holy cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. This is because the penitential journey of discipleship, the carrying of one’s own cross, leads to conformation, and therefore to an experiential knowledge of the Master, which can only be acquired by conforming our lives to his. At Caesarea Philippi, immediately after Peter’s confession and the first prediction of the passion, Jesus lays down the conditions of discipleship. Peter, by divine revelation, confesses the Christ as the Son of the living God but at the same time he recoils from the idea of the cross. This contrast throws light on the decisive point of collision between real faith and apparent faith: to be a believer it is not enough to believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the son of God; one must accept his destiny, and follow him along the way of the cross.
(6) To indicate the third condition placed by Jesus (and follow me), the four evangelists use the verb akoluthèo, which means a communion of life. So it is more than just following someone for a time, it is total and full involvement. Discipleship links the disciple indissolubly and definitively to the Master, and establishes with him a personal and permanent communion and sharing of the whole of life. It is a matter of managing one’s affections, ideals, work, friendships, anxieties, trials, sufferings, etc. together with Christ, because the Master asks us that our whole lives, our whole selves, be filled with Him. Bonhoeffer spoke of “loosing every bond so as to be bound to Christ”. At this level we can understand the proposed text and the meaning of its formulation.
(7) The expression has been coined in a conscious attempt to refer to the writings of St. Francis, for whom discipleship meant following Christ in his poverty (cf. Rnb 9, 1; Letter to Brother Leo 3; Last Will 1); to follow the humility of Christ (cf. Rnb 9,1); to follow the life of Christ (cf. Last Will 1); to follow Christ’s precepts (cf. Office of the Passion, Ps 7,8; Ps 15,13); to follow Christ’s teaching (cf. Rnb 1,1); to follow Christ’s will (cf. Rnb 22,9); to follow the goodness of Christ (cf. Office of the Passion, Ps 5,4); to follow the spirit of Scripture (cf. Admonition 7, 3); to follow the Good Shepherd (cf. Admonition VI, 2). Francis insists above all on following in Christ’s footsteps (cf. Rnb 1,1; 22,2 ; 2Letter to the Faithful 1, 13 ; Letter to Brother Leo 3), moved by the proclamation in the first Letter of Peter: “Christ suffered for you, leaving you an example so that you would follow in his footsteps” (1Pt 2,21). In his catechesis the Apostle teaches that, after Easter, “following in the footsteps” of Christ can no longer refer to the different events of Christ’s earthly life, but rather to the event par excellence: the suffering and death of the Lord’s servant, unjustly undergone for the salvation of the world. Francis links us to this vision. For him, to follow Christ does not mean first of all to repeat the actions of our Lord’s earthly life, but rather to base one’s whole life on the demands of the gospel, while giving priority – without any doubt at all – to those of 1Pt. The frequent use of this text in the Opuscula shows that Francis explicitly wished to enter into the experience of the mystery of the Lord’s Passion; he lived a Passion-centred spirituality, from which derives his spirituality of poverty.
(8) In PdR1 the paragraph concluded with by means of conversion of heart and mortification of the body, thus highlighting two complementary aspects of penance as following Christ: conversion of heart, namely detachment from sin and conversion to God, and bodily mortification embraced for the love of Christ.
The observations received, which were noted above (cf. note 3), led to the substitution of the formula with another statement which safeguards and spells out the content of the former expression, at the same time avoiding the impression of despising the body.
(9) At present the second sentence of § 2 focuses on the horizontal dimension of conversion. Especially in the Latin construction, it seems that the whole purpose of it is to build up evangelical brotherhood, to which the soli Domino viventes and cum hominibus, praesertim pauperibus, necessitudines novas habentes, are somehow subordinated. But the horizontal aspect follows from the vertical aspect of conversion, from the new relationship with God. Therefore we propose to assign to a new paragraph the second statement of the current § 2. At the same time, . . . the text remains linked to the previous § and in some sense completes it, evoking the more properly religious and theological aspects of conversion and suggesting that conversion itself inherently involves a transition or passage: from self to God. This aspect in particular can be gleaned from the history of the text. It was first formulated at the General Chapter of 1968, in the following words: “Haec conversio, quae initium sumit a fide et baptismate, continuum conamen exigit quo semper magis in dies nobismetipsis renuntiantes soli Deo vivamus” (“This conversion, born of faith and baptism, re quires constant effort, by which we more and more renounce self and live for God”). During the same Chapter the text was later changed and approved in the following formulation: “Haec conversio, quae initium sumit a fide et baptismate, continuum conamen exigit quo semper magis in dies nobismetipsis renuntiantes Domino in omnibus serviamus” (“This conversion, born of faith and baptism, re quires constant effort, by which we more and more renounce self and serve God in all things”). The General Chapter of 1982 again worked on the text, modifying and amplifying it as follows: “Haec conversio in novam creaturam, quae initium sumit a fide et baptismate, continuum conamen exigit, quo magis in dies nobismetipsis renuntiamus. Soli Domino viventes, cum hominibus, praesertim pauperibus, necessitudines novas habentes, paenitentia ad fraternitatem evangelicam aedificandam corroboramur” (“This conversion into a new creature, born of faith and baptism, requires constant effort, by which we more and more renounce self. Living for God alone, and having new relationships with people, especially with the poor, we are strengthened by penance to build a gospel brotherhood”). . . . The fact remains, however, that the concept of the Constitutions is identical with that which was later expressed in VC (n. 35): self-renunciation, in order to live fully for the Lord.
(10) Project 2006 asked for a more literal reference to the Testament. But our Proposed Revision has already done this in chapter I (cf. n. 3,1) and this is not the place to repeat the reference. In any case the text of n. 101,2 sums up a significant interpretation of the Testament: Francis begins to do penance when he shows mercy to the lepers and when, shortly afterwards, he makes his exodus from the world. The fact that the very words exivi de saeculo (I left the world) taken from the Testament are given in the Constitutions as exodum de saeculo fecit (he made his exodus from the world) is an indication of the penitential-paschal significance of leaving the world. We therefore propose to make the current text clearer by saying: misericordiam exercens erga leprosos e exodum suum de saeculo faciens, (by showing compassion to lepers, and making his exodus from the world) because both aspects are part of doing penance. As for Exivi de saeculo, this is “an expression, from the pen of the Saint, which is simultaneously technically precise and open to several meanings”. Because of this richness of meaning and of the various interpretations of the expression exivi de saeculo, it is preferable that the Constitutions should not take a stance in favour of any particular interpretation, and should leave the text as it is, with a certain vagueness of meaning, but at the same time precise enough in indicating the penitential nature of the journey undertaken by Saint Francis. Having carefully evaluated the two requests that were received [Prot. N.; VII-00176; Prot. N.; VII- 00005], the Commission decided that the text should remain as it was, both because it adhered to the Testament of St. Francis and because of the validity of the reasons just explained. Furthermore, the language of the text is sufficiently clear. One cannot imagine that anyone coming to religious life had not already received or should receive the necessary Christian initiation that would enable him to understand the meaning of the Biblical term exodus.
(11) The conjunction is omitted, being unnecessary. The comma is sufficient, and even preferable.
(12) The draft of the C.C.L. said: “Vita evangelicae paenitentiae cum sit nota Ordini nostro insita…” (“Since a life of gospel penance is an inherent characteristic of our Order…”), supporting the statement with many references. The General Chapter of 1968 did not accept this suggestion, but a later chapter (1982) introduced a new paragraph (the current n.101,5), which says: “The spirit of penance in a life of austerity is a characteristic of our Order”. The English translation here is typical of many translations of this number. It is better to say: nota peculiaris Ordinis nostri – a particular characteristic of our Order, because “the evangelical-Franciscan mystery of conversion, penance and spiritual renewal (renewal of the spirit, of the heart) stands at the core of our ideal”. “If one examines the genuine spirit of the Capuchin reform, one will note especially its austerity, which consists in external forms and a more rigid pattern of life, as well as in an audacious and efficacious prophetic call to witness against all that is repugnant to the Gospel in our society and also in the fortitude of soul necessary to launch difficult enterprises, and to accept our modern life in its concrete reality”. Therefore, if we accept that evangelical penance is a particular characteristic of our Order, there is no need to speak of a fundamental option for humility, or even of a humble, simple life, nor is it necessary to describe austerity as serene and wise (cf. Project 2006, n. 77,5). All such specifications lessen the impact of the current text: a spirit of penance in a life of austerity.
(13) We welcome the proposal of Project 2006: we have chosen the narrow way of the gospel. This avoids the repetition of life (austere life; narrow life) and is closer to the words of the gospel (Mt 7,14) and of Pope Paul VI’s speech to the General Chapter in 1968.
(14) This addition moves the text closer to the literal text of Col 1,24.
(15) The expression (opus Ecclesiae… participamus – we share in the work of the Church) is quite general: what is the work of the Church? What is it that we share in? The Italian translation of 1990 had interpreted opus Ecclesiae,… participamus as we join with the Church. The Commission prefers to say “We share in the life of the Church”, which is wider in scope and perhaps more pertinent to the reality of the Church, since it is holy and always in need of purification.
(16) The current Italian translation is not correct. . . . The Latin text is difficult, but the Italian version of 1983 came close: “We promote the coming of the Kingdom of God by bringing the human family together by means of the fullness of charity”. Similarly the French translation of 2001: « nous préparons la venue du Règne de Dieu, pour réaliser l’unité de la famille humaine dans la charité parfaite ». (“We prepare for the coming of God’s Kingdom, to bring about the unity of the human family in perfect charity”.) To avoid any ambiguity the Commission proposes a new formulation of the final part of the text. In any event the phrase “perfect charity” is not superfluous (cf. Project 2006, note 270). God’s kingdom is not brought about through any gathering of people, but in their gathering in the fullness of love, which makes them God’s family.
|Current text||Proposed revised Text|
|Constitutiones (2002)||Constitutions (1990)||Constitutions|
|102, 1. Paenitentia, qua exodus et conversio, est cordis habitudo quae externam manifestationem in vita cotidiana exigit.||102,1. Penance, as an exodus and conversion, is a disposition of the heart that demands an external manifestation in daily life.||Current text (102,1) with additions
1. Penance, as an exodus and a conversion, is a disposition of the heart that demands external manifestation in daily life, which must be matched by a true inner transformation(1).
|102,2. Paenitentes franciscani semper eminere debent delicata et affectuosa caritate et laetitia, sicut sancti nostri, sibimetipsis rigidi, erga ceteros autem bonitate et obsequio pleni fuerunt.||102,2. Penitent Franciscans must always be conspicuous by their gentle and affectionate charity and joy like our saints who, while harsh with themselves, were filled with kindness and respect toward others.||Current text (102,2) with one change
2. Franciscan penitents should always be like our saints: outstanding for their gentle and affectionate charity and joy, strict with themselves (2) but full of kindness and respect toward others.
|102,3. Omni tempore, spiritu conversionis et renovationis incitati, operibus paenitentiae incumbamus, secundum Regulam et Constitutiones et prout Deus nobis inspiraverit, ut mysterium paschale Christi magis ac magis in nobis operetur.||102,3. At all times, moved by the spirit of conversion and renewal, let us devote ourselves to works of penance according to the Rule and Constitutions and, as God inspires us, so that the paschal mystery of Christ may be more and more at work within us.||Current text (102,3)
3. Moved by the spirit of conversion and renewal (3), let us at all times devote ourselves to works of penance (4) according to the Rule and Constitutions and as God inspires us, so that the paschal mystery of Christ may be increasingly at work within us.
|102,4. In primis meminerimus ipsam vitam nostram Deo dicatam eximium esse penitentiae genus.||102,4. First of all, let us remember that our consecrated life is in itself an excellent form of penance.||Current text (102,4)
4. In the first place we should remember that our life of consecration to God is in itself an excellent form of penance (5).
|102,5. Inde paupertatem, humilitatem, molestias vitae, laborem cotidie fideliter adimplendum, disponibilitatem ad servitium Dei et proximi et ad consortium fraternum fovendum, pondus infirmitatis vel annorum, quin etiam persecutiones propter Regum Dei, pro nostra aliorumque salute offeramus, ut patientes cum patientibus, in conformatione nostra cum Christo semper gaudeamus.||102,5. For our salvation and that of others, therefore, let us offer our poverty, humility, the hardships of life, the faithful fulfillment of daily work, the availability for the service of God and neighbor, and the fostering of fraternal life, the burden of sickness and old age, even persecution for the Kingdom of God. Thus, suffering with those who suffer, we might always rejoice in our conformity with Christ.||Current text (102,5) with addition
5. Therefore, for our salvation and that of others, let us offer our poverty and humility, the hardships of life, the faithful performance of our daily work, our availability to serve God and neighbour and our efforts to cultivate fraternal life (6), the burden of sickness and old age, and even persecution for the Kingdom of God. In this way, suffering with those who suffer, may we always rejoice in our conformity to Christ.
|102,6. Nos eandem viam conversionis sancti Francisci sequamur, obviam euntes praecipue iis qui, nostris temporibus, derelicti omnique ope destitui sunt.||102,6. Let us follow the same path of conversion of Saint Francis especially by going out to meet those who, in our times, are marginalized and in need of help.||Current text (102,6)
6. Let us follow the same path of conversion as Saint Francis, especially by going out to meet those who, in our times, are marginalized and in need of help.
(1) The text has been deliberately lengthened at the end by a phrase that mentions the Collect of Friday after Ash Wednesday, in order to underline the relationship between the interior and exterior aspects of penance-conversion. Also, it brings out the fact that external penitential practices must never become absolutes, to the detriment of interior commitment. “This type of continuous conversion, naturally exercised in works of penance, is not to be restricted to set penitential exercises. Rather, it penetrates and renews our whole life, bringing about a change of the whole person, and placing us in a new relationship, more human and authentic, with God and with people. Thus is the Kingdom of God and its values introduced into this life and into the world”. “We must avoid the danger that, because of the penitential exercises we perform materially, a certain self-sufficiency develops in ourselves in relation to God. This, according to Saint Francis, would be contrary to poverty of spirit (Admonition 16). In fact, it is only by proceeding in the freedom of the Spirit that we will be able to discover appropriate and effective penitential exercises, which will in any case always need to be sought for and examined. A genuine spirit, when it is present, will always find the right means to manifest itself, even externally. In PdR1 the final part of the text was even longer (But exterior commitment should be matched by a real inner transformation in order to progress to communion with the living God and with the brothers). The Commission accepted the request to shorten it[cf. Prot. N.; VII-00178; Prot. N.; VII-00023], but retained the biblical and liturgical expression concerning penance as exodus and conversion, rather than replacing it – as one proposal requested [cf. Prot. N.; VII-00007] – with a phrase from the Testament: “leave the world”.
(2) We found it appropriate to delete the preposition denoting a time-reference –perfect tense in Latin and imperfect in Italian (qui … fuerunt – i quali erano). Thus, the statement strict with themselves but full of kindness and respect toward others becomes a quality applied to our saints, without any reference to the past, either proximate or remote. In this way there is an implicit reference to all our saints, including contemporary and future ones. Some comments disagreed with the translation of the Latin rgidi into the Italian rigorosi (rigorous) and suggested esigenti (demanding) [Prot. N.; VII- 00207]. However the Latin equivalent of the Italian esigenti (demanding) would be difficilis, severus. From this perspective change would not be desirable. The Commission therefore agreed to keep rigidi as in the present Latin text and the earlier Italian texts of 1983 and 1990. Also the Commission did not agree with another request, which proposed saying Like the saints or all the saints instead of like our saints as in the current text [Prot. N.; VII-00179], or with another which proposed to replace full of goodness and respect for others with full of mercy towards others [Prot. N. VII- 00167]. This does not rule out that we can and must learn gentle and affectionate charity and joy from all the saints in the Church, not only from our own. But here, we are dealing with the Constitutions of the Capuchin Friars Minor, whose inspirational models, in addition to Francis and Clare of Assisi. are Franciscan and Capuchin saints. They typify our encounter with Christ and the world and are put forward as an instructive narrative of our spirituality. With respect to the second proposal, The Commission pointed out that goodness does not exclude mercy, indeed it includes it, and that the literary construction of this text, expressed as it is in the form of a contrast (strict with themselves, but full…), should above all highlight the characteristic of affectionate refinement that characteristic of our saints.
(3) The Commission had long discussions about whether to introduce into this number an explicit reference to the Capuchin reform. A similar proposal was made in Project 2006 (n. 78,3), with this justification: “The principle that the Order is in a constant state of reform and renewal (Ordo semper reformandus ac renovandus), enunciated by Br. Optatus van Asseldonk and based on Capuchin tradition, deserves at least a passing mention in the Constitutions” (note 272). The Commission did not deem it appropriate to make the insertion, for reasons already given in the explanatory notes to chapter I. Furthermore, the principle the Order is in a constant state of reform and renewal is already explicit in chapter I (cf. n. 4) and in our Proposed Revision (n. 5), but the Commission does believe it is right to maintain continuity with the choice made by the General Chapter of 1982 and avoid speaking of the Capuchin Reform. On the other hand, Br. Optatus van Asseldonk, back in 1967, asked the question “What will the Capuchins need to do in order to be themselves today, to remain faithful to their providential and historic calling within the Church?”, and replied: “Abandon the reformist terminology of the 14th and 15th centuries and go back to the time of St Francis …and to the genuine spirit of the Seraphic Father, as the Council intended”. Even the exhortation “let us not neglect a constant assessment of our individual and fraternal life”, because “the review of life is a clear and important means of practical conversion” (Project 2006, n. 78,3 and note 273), does not seem appropriate to the context. The current text, in the same chapter, speaks about fraternal correction, which is also a form of life-review and of constant assessment of our individual and fraternal life, often mentioned in the Constitutions.
(4) It was proposed to substitute let us dedicate ourselves to works of penance with let us dedicate ourselves to works of mercy, because “works of mercy lead to the authentic growth of the human person. Penance is a methodology, the objective of which is conversion” [Prot. N.; VII- 00193]. The Commission did not accept the proposal, because penance indicates a more general category that includes external penitential practices as well as mercy and works of charity as will be expressed explicitly in the following number (114, 3).
(5) The original Latin text, here translated literally, needs no further specification. The Constitutions refer to the life of consecration, which is always and everywhere a life of conversion. All aspects of the Franciscan life are lived in penance, not just life in fraternity, which in any case is explained in the following §.
(6) The expression has been slightly modified and expanded in order to underline commitment to fraternity life as the environment in which the life of penance is expressed.
|Current text||Proposed revised Text|
|Constitutiones (2002)||Constitutions (1990)||Constitutions|
|103,1. Christus Dominus, omnium exemplar, missione a Patre accepta et ductus a Spiritu Sancto, ieiunavit in deserto quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus,||103,1. Christ the Lord, the exemplar of all, after accepting a mission from His Father and being led by the Holy Spirit, fasted in the desert for forty days and forty nights.||Current text (103,1) with one change
1. Christ the Lord, the model for those doing penance (1), having received a mission from His Father and being led by the Holy Spirit, fasted in the desert for forty days and forty nights.
|Et etiam eius discipulus sanctus Franciscus, imitandi Dominum desiderio accensus, in ieiuniis et orationibus vixit.||His disciple, Saint Francis, burning with the desire of imitating the Lord, also spent his life in fasting and prayer.||Current text (103,1)
2. His disciple Saint Francis, burning with the desire to imitate the Lord, also spent his life in fasting and prayer (2).
3. Let us, therefore, apply ourselves to the discipline of penance, which leads to inner freedom and opens us to love for God and our neighbour. Let us practise fasting, prayer and works of mercy, which enliven one another: fasting is the soul of prayer and mercy is the life of fasting; therefore whoever prays should fast, and whoever fasts should show mercy (3).
|103,2. Tempus adventus et in primis quadragesimae Paschatis, necnon singulae sextae feriae habeantur a nobis ut tempora intensioris paenitentiae tum privatae tum communis.||103,2. The time of Advent and, above all, the Lent before Easter, as well as every Friday, should be considered by us as times of more intense private and communal penance.||Current text (103,2)
4. The season of Advent and, above all, the Lent before Easter, as well as every Friday, should be for us times of more intense individual and communal penance
|103,3. Commendantur insuper quadragesima vulgo Benedicta ac pervigilia sollemnitatum sancti Francisci et Immaculatae Conceptionis beatae Mariae Virginis.||103,3. Moreover, [the observance of] the Lent, commonly called the ‘Lent of Benediction’, and of the vigils of the Solemnities of Saint Francis and of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary is also recommended.||Current text (103,3) with addition
5. In addition, the ‘Lent of Benediction’, as it is called, which begins at the Epiphany and lasts for forty days (4), and the vigils of the Solemnities of Saint Francis and of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, are also recommended.
|103,4. His diebus promptiore animo incumbamus illis operibus quae conversioni favent: orationi, recollectioni, auditione verbi Dei, mortificationi corporali et ieiunio in fraternitate. Quod autem de mensa Domini ex maiore parsimonia nobis provenit, cum aliis pauperibus fraterne communicemus, atque opera misericordiae, iuxta morem nostrum traditionalem, ferventius exerceamus.||103,4. On these days let us dedicate ourselves more readily to those works that favor conversion: prayer, recollection, listening to the word of God, bodily mortification and communal fasting. In a brotherly spirit, let us share by our greater frugality with other poor people whatever comes to us from the table of the Lord, and let us practice works of mercy more fervently according to our traditional custom.||Current text (103,4)
6. On these days we should apply ourselves more readily to those works which foster conversion: prayer, recollection, listening to the word of God, bodily mortification and communal fasting. In a brotherly spirit, let us share with other poor people what we save from the table of the Lord by our greater frugality. Let us also perform works of mercy more fervently according to our traditional custom.
|103,5. Ad legem vero abstinentiae et ieiunii quod attinet, servent fratres praescripta Ecclesiae sive universalis sive particularis.||103,5. As regards the law of abstinence and fasting, let the brothers observe the prescriptions of both the universal and the particular Church.||Current text (103,5)
7. As regards the law of abstinence and fasting, let the brothers observe the prescriptions of the Church, both universal and particular.
|103,6. Capituli autem provincialis est, tum de diebus ieiunii et abstinentiae, tum de modo ieiunandi pro variis locorum ac temporum adiunctis ulterius decernere.||103,6. It is the responsibility of the provincial chapter, however, to determine more precisely both days of fasting and abstinence as well as the manner of fasting according to various circumstances of place and time.||Current text (103,6) with changes and deletions
8. However, it is the responsibility of the chapter of each circumscription (5) to make more detailed provision regarding both the days of fasting and abstinence and the manner of fasting (6).
|105,3 De his vero aliisque formis paenitentiae communitariae, Capitula provincialia, iuxta regionum adiuncta, opportunas normas edant.||Current text (105,3) with additions and changes
9. Equally, in each circumscription, chapters should make appropriate regulations about other forms (7) of communal penance according to the circumstances of time and place (8).
(1) Since the specific context here is the life of penance, PdR1 proposed to change the title given to Christ in the current text (omnium exemplar – the model of all) to modello supremo dei penitenti – the supreme model of penitents, adopting an expression that was used in the Apostolic Constitution Poenitemini, which states: “The invitation of the Son to “metanoia” becomes all the more inescapable inasmuch as He not only preaches it but Himself offers an example. Christ, in fact, is the supreme model for those doing penance. He willed to suffer punishment for sins which were not His but those of others”.
Some questioned the expression [[Prot. N.; VII-00181; Prot. N.; VII-00008]; others preferred the current text [Prot. N.; VII- 00024]; others again [Prot. N.; VII – 00194] suggested “model of the humble” (cf. Phil 2, 6-11). The Committee considered that it was better to retain the more specific title that had been used in the document of Paul VI because of its reference to conversion and penance, but deleting the adjective supreme.
(2) It seems appropriate to separate the two statements in § 1 and to make a new one, leaving the text unchanged.
(3) In the Constitutions of 1968, n. 91 began with a list of the penitential times. The General Chapter of 1982 added an introductory paragraph to the text, mentioning the example of Christ and Saint Francis. Structured in this way, the text makes a kind of break between § 1° and the others. The Commission, therefore, has not only divided the present § 1 into two, but proposes to insert a new § which establishes a clearer logical link with the first two. In it, following the Church’s tradition and the constant teaching of the Fathers, the liturgy and the magisterium of the Church, the significance of asceticism is brought out and the spiritual value of fasting, prayer and works of mercy is briefly mentioned. “There is also a need to rediscover the ascetic practices typical of the spiritual tradition of the Church and of the individual’s own Institute. These have been and continue to be a powerful aid to authentic progress in holiness. Asceticism, by helping to master and correct the inclinations of human nature wounded by sin, is truly indispensable if consecrated persons are to remain faithful to their own vocation and follow Jesus on the way of the Cross” (VC 38). The second part of the text is taken from Sermo 43 of St. Peter Chrysologus (cfr. PL 52, 320. 332). The formulation of PdR1 has been revised and simplified in the light of the feedback received [cf. Prot. N.; VII – 00004; Prot. N.; VII – 00195; Prot. N.; VII – 00199; Prot. N.; VII – 00182; Prot. N.; VII – 00204]. Some comments [Prot. N.; VII – 00036] were based on an error in the Latin text, which referred to comtemplationi poenitentiali (sic!), penitential contemplation.
(4) The insertion is made for the sake of clarification, possibly necessary in our day.
(5) The term is changed to indicate that all circumscriptions of the Order are involved, not just the provinces.
(6) Final clause deleted as unnecessary. If the chapters of every circumscription are supposed to issue further norms regarding days of fasting and abstinence and ways of fasting, they will obviously need to take account of the circumstances of time and place.
(7) The current text is slightly modified for stylistic reasons.
(8) The prescriptions of current n. 105,3 are anticipated here, slightly adapted to the new context, this time with a reference to the circumstances of time and place.
|Current text||Proposed revised Text|
|Constitutiones (2002)||Constitutions (1990)||Constitutions|
|104. 1. Ad vitam vere evangelicam ducendam,
memores passionis Iesu, ad exemplum sancti Francisci et sanctorum fratrum nostrorum,
|104. 1. To lead a truly gospel life
and mindful of the passion of Christ,
|Current text (104,1) with changes
1. Our life should conform to the gospel command to do penance (2),
|[…] vita nostra sit in omnibus simplex et parca, ut convenit pauperibus.||[…] Let our life be simple and frugal in all things as is appropriate for the poor,||and should therefore be simple and frugal in all things, as befits poor people (3).|
|[… ] memores passionis Iesu, ad exemplum sancti Francisci et sanctorum fratrum nostrorum […]
Mortificationem etiam voluntariam exerceamus, nosmetipsos libenter moderantes in cibo potuque, in spectaculis aliisque oblectamentis.
|[…] and mindful of the passion of Christ, after the example of Saint Francis and our holy brothers.
Let us also practice voluntary mortification, willingly moderating ourselves in food and drink, in attending the theater and other forms of entertainment.
|Current text (104,1) with changes
2. Mindful of the passion of Christ (4), after the example of Saint Francis and of our saints (5),
let us also practice voluntary mortification, willingly restricting ourselves in food, drink (6) and entertainments.
3. Our common table, too, should always be resplendent with moderation and poverty, so that everything testifies to our condition as pilgrims and strangers (7).
|104,2. Superiores autem in rebus providendis, praesertim infirmis, caritatis praeceptum et exemplum sancti Francisci prae oculis habeant.||104,2. Superiors should keep in mind the precept and example of charity of Saint Francis when providing things, especially for the sick.||Current text (104,2) with changes
4. The ministers and guardians (8) should keep in mind the precept of charity and the example of Saint Francis when providing what is necessary (9), especially for the sick (10).
(1) Looking at the current text (n. 104), one is immediately struck by § 2, which starts with the word But (Latin text: autem), which makes no sense. In fact the entire text, while valid as far as content is concerned, has lost its context as a result of changes made to the 1968 text by the General Chapter of 1982
|Text of 1968 (n. 92)||Text of 1982 (n. 104 )|
|In order that we may live a truly gospel life, in memory of the Passion of Jesus, to follow the example of our holy Father Saint Francis and to share in the privations of the poor,||In order that we may live a truly gospel life, in memory of the Passion of Jesus, our life should be simple and frugal in all things, as befits poor people, after the example of Saint Francis and our saintly brothers.|
|we should practice voluntary mortification, and willingly restrict ourselves in matters of food and drink and in attending shows and other entertainments.||We should also practise voluntary mortification, and willingly restrict ourselves in matters of food and drink and in attending shows and other entertainments.|
|In order that poverty and sobriety may ever shine forth at our table, the food served should be only that which is sufficient and in harmony with our state, even on feast days or when we have guests with us.|
|But the superiors should keep in mind the precept of charity and the example of Saint Francis when providing necessary things, especially for the sick.||But the superiors should keep in mind the precept of charity and the example of Saint Francis when providing things, especially for the sick .|
It is clear from this comparative table that the last paragraph was not linked to voluntary mortification and willingly restrict ourselves in matters of food and drink and in attending shows and other entertainments, but was connected with the requirement of poverty and sobriety at the common table. In the text of 1968 the position of the final paragraph was particularly appropriate, whereas today it no longer is, and the recommendation to the ministers is placed alongside the other requirements but does not logically follow from them. The same recommendation could just as well be placed elsewhere, especially in chapter IV on poverty.
It is also apparent from this table that certain other community aspects of our life of poverty and penance were deleted, as well as the need for us to give witness also when we receive guests (cum hospites apud nos accipiuntur).
The opening line of §1 (In order that we may live a truly gospel life) is identical to the 1968 text and to that of 1982, but it is generic and repetitive, because the Constitutions constantly propose this as a reason for action. It would be more pertinent – especially in this chapter dealing with the life of penance – to bring out more clearly the relationship between the Christ who suffered and died, which is at the heart of the Gospel and therefore of the gospel life. From a stylistic point of view, the formulation of the entire paragraph in the 1982 version is less effective. Certainly the frequent repetition of the word life does nothing to improve the style.
(2) The new expression replaces the present formula (To live a truly Gospel life) which is repeated continuously in the Constitutions. Moreover, Project 2006 (n. 79, 1) had changed the expression that was in the current text into to really live according to the Gospel which invites us to fast and pray, justifying the change in this way: “In this chapter which deals with penance and conversion the intention is to indicate what constitutes life according to the Gospel in this sense” (note 276 of Project 2006). Such reasoning seemed to restrict the meaning of life according to the Gospel, whereas the Constitutions had already based the practice of fasting and prayer on the example of Christ and Saint Francis. The new introduction which is proposed, with its reference to the precept of fasting, is based on Christ’s preaching which, according to Mark’s Gospel, begins with an imperative which is both a call and a command. Thus the Apostolic Constitution Poenitemini speaks of the divine command of penance and so does the Schema of CCL(18) and this is what the Commission proposed. In this specific context divine precept seems to be more appropriate and stronger than Gospel precept. This was noted in some of the comments received [Prot. N.; VII-00010], namely that “Gospel precept of penance” was a weak statement. The command is carried out by a particular person. We follow it and it becomes our duty to live humbly, modestly and in a poor manner or, as the proposed revision puts it, to live simply and modestly as befits poor people. In any case, the Commission retained the expression ‘Gospel precept’, in the sense of a precept that is contained in the Gospel. It also accepted another proposal which was received [Prot. N.; VII-00168], and changed the previous formulation of PdR1 Let our life be in line with the precept … to Let our life be conformed to the precept …
(3) The text coincides with the current one.
(4) In the current text the reference to the Passion of Christ is inserted as a single clause (mindful of Christ’s passion), which Project 2006 had proposed to delete. The new formulation strengthens the reference, and it should be developed even more, because the practice of penance is not simply and solely as a remembrance of the passion but above all as a sharing in the Passion of Christ: “Therefore, following the Master, (= in order that we may live a truly gospel life, Const. 104,1) every Christian must renounce himself, take up his own cross and participate in the sufferings of Christ. Thus transformed into the image of Christ’s death, he is made capable of sharing in the glory of the resurrection” (Paenitemini, Ic); “The precept of penitence must be satisfied in a more perfect way by priests, who are more closely linked to Christ through sacred character, as well as by those who in order to follow more closely the abnegation of the Lord and to find an easier and more efficacious path to the perfection of charity practice the evangelical counsels” (Ibid., IIIc). Consequently the Commission did not accept the proposal [Prot. N.; VII-00011] to change Mindful of the Passion of Jesus to Mindful of the poverty of Jesus.
(5) The text coincides with the current one, with the deletion of the word brothers, so as not to refer only to Capuchin saints.Therefore, the proposal made along the same lines [Prot. N/; VII—185] can be considered as already accepted. However, with regard to regard this, cf. also the explanation given above in note 2 of number 113,2 .
(6) The current text has been changed slightly, because we preferred to omit references to “shows” or “theatre”. Project 2006 substituted entertainments by nell’uso dei beni voluttuari (in the use of luxury goods), explaining in note 278 that this generic term includes all the various aspects of moderation. This is a legitimate point, because the term entertainments is hardly the best one could think of using, but luxury goods does not seem to solve the problem either.
(7) The new paragraph restores a part of the 1968 text (n. 92), which in turn was in line with the entire legislation of the Order, from the Constitutions of 1536 to those of 1925. At the end, following a proposal made by the C.C.L. at the time, a new spiritual motive is added, to affirm the relationship between the life of penance and itinerancy. From this point of view, the text is inspired by the Franciscan sources. Celano says: “This man [Francis] not only hated pretence in houses, he also abhorred having an abundance of fine furnishings in them. He disliked anything, in tables or dishes, that recalled the ways of the world. He wanted everything to sing of exile and pilgrimage” (2Cel 60). Immediately afterwards, the biographer recounts the episode of the table prepared at Greccio on Easter day, when Francis turned up as a poor man, after the example of Christ. Celano puts this declaration on the lips of Francis: “The examples of the Son of God’s poverty should move us more than other religious. I saw here a table all prepared and decorated, and thought it could not be the table of poor men who go from door to door” (2Cel 61).
(8) A simple change of terminology, following the general principle.
(9) The current Italian translation adds an adjective here (necessary things). The Latin has in rebus providendis (when providing things). The text approved in 1968 said in rebus necessariis providendis, (in providing necessary things) but in 1982 the word necessariis was deleted, although in this text it is not superfluous, because superiors are not supposed to provide the brothers with anything and everything, but only with what they need. We therefore prefer the version in the Italian text, which would have to be rendered correctly in Latin. The same addition is made in the French and Portuguese translations (2001).
(10) Project 2006 introduces a new paragraph: “We should generously welcome the crosses which are part of the human condition and promptly accept the penance of taking care of those who are suffering”, explaining that “The human condition as such provides a good deal of suffering which, if accepted, is a penance and a means to conversion. The same goes for assistance given to those who are suffering”. Note that this idea is already present in the current text (n. 102,5), although differently expressed.
|Current text||Proposed revised Text|
|Constitutiones (2002)||Constitutions (1990)||Constitutions|
|105,1. Corde dolentes de nostris aliorumque peccatis, atque in novitate vitae ambulare desiderantes, exercitia paenitentialia peragamus, utique accommodata diverso sentiendi modo iuxta regiones et tempora.||105. 1. Grieving in our hearts over our sins and those of others and desiring to walk in newness of life, let us practice works of penance adapted indeed to the differing mentalities of time and place.||Current text (105,1)
1. Grieving over our own sins (1) and those of others, and desiring to walk in newness of life, we should practice works of penance, adapted of course to the differing sensitivities of time and place.
|105,2. Nominatim commendantur correptio fraterna quam Iesus docet,||105,2. Explicitly recommended are: the fraternal correction that Jesus taught||Current text (105,2) with changes (2)
2. With love and truth (3) we seek to practice (4) fraternal correction, as Jesus taught us (5).
|colloquium inter fratres de sui ipsorum vita sub lumine Evangelii et aliae penitentiae evangelicae formae, praesertim communiter factae.||An exchange among the brothers concerning each one’s life in light of the Gospel, and other forms of penance, especially those done in common.||Current text (105,2) with changes
3. Both individually and in fraternity, particularly in the local chapter, we should question ourselves (6) in the light of the gospel about our way of life and the forms (7) our penances take, especially those we practise in common.
|105,3. De his vero aliisque formis paenitentiae communitariae, Capitula provincialia, iuxta regionum adiuncta, opportunas normas edant.||105,3. Let the provincial chapters promulgate appropriate norms concerning these and other forms of communal penance according to local conditions.||Transferred with changes to n. 114,9|
(1) The proposal [Prot.; N. VII-00028] to delete number 116, 1 was not accompanied by any reason. Nor did the Commission find any reason to suppress a text, which, among other things, evokes the subject of compunction of heart in its opening line (With sorrow in our hearts for our suns and those of others), the importance of which is beyond discussion for the spiritual life, as is seen from the place it has not only in Sacred Scripture, but also in the works of the Fathers, some medieval authors (including Saint Bonaventure) and in the modern era, in the traditional practices of East and West, of the saints, of those who are consecrated and of ordinary Christians. Cf. J. PEGON, Compunction, in Dictionnaire de Spiritualité II, 1312-1321
(2) § 2 has been divided into two parts in order to highlight both fraternal correction and the individual and communal verification of the practice of penance.
(3) The proposed text speaks of love and truth as being essential components and conditions for dialogue, in which “truth is wedded to charity and understanding to love” (Ecclesiam suam 82).
The proposal [Prot. N.; VII_00028) to begin the text with Consapevoli dei limiti e dei peccati nostri e altrui (Aware of the limitations of our sins and the sins of others) was connected with and subordinated to what had been already said in note 1: it was proposed to delete n. 116, 1 and to begin at the beginning of § 2 with the opening which was mentioned earlier.
(4) The current text recommends fraternal correction. The proposed new formulation strengthens this recommendation.
(5) By saying as Jesus taught us, the text is simplified and the question of the tense of the verb is avoided: present tense in Latin, past tense in Italian.
(6) “… fraternal life … can be considered as a new expression of gospel penance, to be practised through dialogue and the local chapters, as well as through mutual acceptance, esteem and friendship. Christ himself is the root and source of fraternity”.
(7) It is certainly true, as the Constitutions have already stated, that “our very life of dedication to God is an excellent form of penance”, but here it makes no sense to speak of our way of living or of the other forms of penance. We have therefore deleted the word other, and also the word evangelical found in the current text. It is enough to say that the verification is done in the light of the gospel.
|Current text||Proposed revised Text|
|Constitutiones (2002)||Constitutions (1990)||Constitutions|
|106,2. Quo sacramento insuper beneficium mortis et resurrectionis Christi experti, Eucharistiam et Ecclesiae mysterium intimius participamus.||106,2. By means of the sacrament [of penance], moreover, we participate more intimately in the Eucharist and in the mystery of the Church while we experience the benefit of the death and resurrection of Christ.||Current text (106,2), with additions(1)
1. In the sacrament of penance(2) or reconciliation, through the working of the Holy Spirit, who is the remission of sins(3), while we experience the benefit of the death and resurrection of Christ, we participate more closely in the Eucharist and in the mystery of the Church.
|106,1. In sacramento paenitentiae vel reconciliationis non modo fratres sed et fratrum communitas purificatur et sanatur ad instaurandam unionem cum Salvatore simulque reconciliationem in Ecclesia.||106,1. In the sacrament of penance or reconciliation not only the brothers but the community of brothers as well are purified and healed for the restoration of their union with the Savior and, at the same time, for their reconciliation within the Church.||Current text (106,1) with changes
2. In this sacrament the brothers, not only as individuals but as a community(4), are purified and healed for the restoration(5) of their union with the Savior and, at the same time, for their reconciliation with the Church(6).
|106,3. Purificati et renovati per sacramenta Ecclesiae, vitam nostram franciscano-capuccinam in dies melius vivimus.||106,3. Purified and renewed by means of the sacraments of the Church, we live our Capuchin Franciscan life each day more perfectly.||Current text (106,3) with changes
3. Purified and renewed by the sacraments of the Church, we are also strengthened in our commitment to be faithful to our form of life (7).
|106,4. Unde permagni aestimemus frequentem peccatorum nostrorum confessionem necnon cotidianum examen conscientiae et directionem spiritualem.||106,4. For this reason, let us place great value on frequent confession of our sins, as well as on daily examination of conscience and spiritual direction. The communal celebration of penance is also recommended.||New Text (8)
4. Therefore, holding the sacrament of penance (9) in high esteem, we should frequently take advantage of it to receive the divine forgiveness and experience the joy of being purified and renewed by the Father’s mercy (10). Reconciled with God, let us be committed to spreading His love among ourselves through mutual forgiveness: let us forgive offenses and promote fraternal reconciliation (11).
|New text (cf. Current text 106,4)
5. Let us also highly esteem the daily examination of conscience and spiritual direction(12), so that we may respond generously to the promptings of the Spirit and be resolute in our aim for holiness.
|106,4. […] Commendatur etiam celebratio paenitentiae communitaria||106,4. […] The communal celebration of penance is also recommended.||Current text (106,4) modified
6. Conscious of the social dimensions of conversion, we should also try to hold communal celebrations of penance, both in our fraternities and with the people of God (13).
7. Let the ministers and guardians take every care to ensure that the brothers are faithful to the sacramental life and that they benefit from spiritual direction (14).
(1) One evaluation noted that discussion on the Sacrament of Penance came rather suddenly, after having spoken of individual and fraternal conversion [Prot. N.; VII – 00169]. Therefore the Commission has reversed the first two paragraphs, to allow for adequate preparation and development of the topic.
(2) It was proposed [Prot. N.; VII – 00196] to delete Penance, because , it was said, “its objective is mercy and so the term that is more appropriate at the present time is “reconciliation”. The Commission noted that the tern Penance is also appropriate and not contradict any essential point, either with regard to mercy or to reconciliation.
(3) The addition proposed is intended to fill the gap in chapter VII regarding the function of the Holy Spirit. This is of the greatest importance for our Constitutions, and cannot be thought of as a negligible detail. This is why the text has been recast on the basis of a definition of the Holy Spirit drawn from a venerable text of the ancient Roman liturgy , present today in the Missale Romanum as the prayer over the gifts for Saturday of week VII in the Easter season (the Saturday before Pentecost): Lord, may the coming of the Holy Spirit prepare our minds (to receive) the divine sacraments, for He is the forgiveness of all sins. The expression is found on this one occasion only, and is therefore of particular value in the whole corpus of liturgical texts. This is a solemn proclamation of the function of the Spirit, also in relation to Christ: if Christ is the Saviour, the Spirit is salvation; if Christ is the Reconciler, the Spirit is reconciliation; if Christ forgives sins, the Spirit is the forgiveness of sins. If Christ is the Sanctifier, the Spirit is sanctification. The proposed formulation intends to focus the text on the action of the Spirit, and the addition by the working of the Holy Spirit brings out the fact…. that in the sacraments, including the sacrament of penance, the Spirit is poured out over the faithful; and the Church believes with living faith that the Spirit connects us with Mystery of Christ, with His death and resurrection…. And it is the Church’s belief that the Spirit is the One who builds up the communion of the Church. ….
Thus, the Commission thought that it was important to strengthen the pneumatological dimension of the Sacrament of Penance by using an expression which applies to the entire text of the Constitutions. One of the evaluations which was received [Prot. N.; VII_00169] appreciated the phrase “Holy Spirit, the remission of sins”. Another proposal [Prot. N.; VII_00029] also suggested reinforcing the expression by stating, in line with the Latin liturgical text, through the work of the Holy Spirit, who is Himself the remission of sins. On the other hand another two evaluations [Prot. N.; VII_00187; Prot. N.; VII_00012] expressed perplexity over this expression because it needed explanation. However this should neither surprise nor alarm us. As we have already observed, other expressions which were introduced into the Constitutions in 1968 and 1982 are also in need of explanation and study. This is the task of initial and ongoing formation. The Constitutions need to be studied and nothing dispenses from such study.
(4) The Commission did not accept the proposal [Prot. N.; VII_00200] to replace community of brothers with fraternity. The present text does not contradict the vision or ideal of fraternity, and, what is more, by using the term community only once the aspect of koinonia is expressed better.
(5) There is a question here about the use of the main verb. The Latin has instaurare, translated in the more recent Italian versions as renew, while the earlier 1983 version had establish. We prefer to say restore, which is precisely what happens in the sacrament of penance. . . . It should also be pointed out that the verb is in the singular, which means that the community of brothers is the subject: but also the community of brothers is purified and healed. The text clearly says that not only the individual friars, but the fraternity, is purified and healed, restoring unity with the Saviour and reconciliation with the Church. We thus have a vision of the fraternity as signum Ecclesiae – a sign of the Church (cf. earlier remarks on chapter VI).
(6) We did not accept the proposal [Prot. N.; VII_00196] to add at the end and with all creation. This proposal was motivated by the need to indicate our ecological responsibility towards creation with Franciscan sensitivity. The Commission did not think such an addition was either appropriate or necessary. And not even required by the particular context. Our ecological responsibility is sufficiently brought out in other places in the Constitutions.
(7) The current text is neither an exhortation nor a recommendation; it is a statement of fact. . . . We propose to say: we are also strengthened in our commitment to be faithful to our form of life with form of life replacing the phrase Franciscan-Capuchin life.
(8) The text of the present paragraph 4 has been completely rethought and amplified, with a distinction made between what refers to sacramental confession, daily examination of conscience and spiritual direction.
(9) Here PdR2 retained the phrase Sacrament of Confession, even though the observations which were received suggested a preference for the term reconciliation over confession [Prot. N.; VII-00030], or the Sacrament of Penance, in as much as the Sacrament of Confession is an expression which has been superseded by the reform of the Council and the Rite of Penance [Prot. N.; VII_00170]. It should be noted that the current text speaks of the frequent confession of our sins, and not of the Sacrament of Confession. There is a need for further reflection on this point.
(10) The text has been expanded in the light of Project 2006 (cf. n. 81,2-3), which in turn refers to the teaching of VC: “The Eucharist is also closely connected with the commitment to continual conversion and necessary purification which consecrated persons bring to maturity in the Sacrament of Reconciliation. By their frequent encounter with God’s mercy, they purify and renew their hearts, and through the humble recognition of their sins achieve openness in their relationship with him. The joyful experience of sacramental forgiveness, on the journey shared with one’s brothers and sisters, makes the heart eager to learn and encourages growth in faithfulness” (n. 95). “In our condition as sinners, we need to experience in a clear and consoling way that in the sacrament of penance God welcomes us lovingly, just as the Father in the parable embraces his son who has come back to life. It is absolutely necessary that God’s mercy be more appropriately and joyfully preached and celebrated”.
(11) The text has been deliberately formulated to bring out the fact that in the sacrament of Penance the Father reconciles us to Himself, as well as the need for mutual forgiveness, inherently linked to God’s forgiveness. … as we see in the Our Father: “forgive us our sins, as we forgive those who sin against us”. This is the only time in the Lord’s prayer where “we” appears explicitly as subject; it is the most demanding part of the Our Father …. In the background there is also the gospel command: «Be merciful, as your Father in heaven is merciful”, which is Luke’s version (Lk 6,36) of Matthew’s: “You therefore must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect” (Mt 5,48). From this it follows that perfection is identified with showing mercy, after the example of the Father of mercies, who reveals His almighty power chiefly by showing mercy and granting forgiveness. The sacrament of penance is therefore the celebration of this immense reality of love, the moment when we become more aware of it in order to put it into practice in our lives. There is no reference to mutual forgiveness in our Constitutions, despite the fact that they speak so often of fraternity. The Writings of Saint Francis insist on divine forgiveness and human forgiveness going together.
This is why it seemed to us necessary to fill this gap in the Constitutions, bearing in mind the fact that the fraternity (fraternal life) is the place for forgiveness and celebration, it is the school where we learn to be brothers and necessarily learn the discipline of mutual forgiveness. “Ours is the time for edification and constant building. It is always possible to improve and to walk together towards a community that is able to live in forgiveness and love. Communities cannot avoid all conflicts. The unity which they must build is a unity established at the price of reconciliation” (CICLSAL, Fraternal life in Community, n. 26). One of the evaluations received [Prot. N.; VII- 00030] proposed to eliminate the last sentence: let us forgive offences, and promote fraternal reconciliation.
(12) Here, the purpose of examination of conscience and spiritual direction, barely mentioned in the current text (n. 106,4), is outlined in detail. Spiritual direction was introduced at the time by the C.C.L. for the following reasons: “The mention of spiritual direction was added at the request of a majority of the provinces. Its connection with the virtue and sacrament of penance can be defended, and in fact the direction of conscience, while it is often separate from the sacramental act and can be exercised even by those who are not priests, is a useful aid in the purification of the soul”. These reasons are still valid today. But, precisely because spiritual direction can be either a part of sacramental confession or separate from it, it seemed appropriate to devote a separate paragraph to the meaning and purpose of spiritual direction. The text comes from n. 95 of VC, and it clearly follows from this text that spiritual direction, for which “due freedom” is required” (cf. PC 14), cannot be replaced by or confused with psychological counselling or therapy. (Cf. The contemplative dimension of religious life, 11; Potissimum institutioni 63).
In PdR1 the text was composed of two sentences: the first concerned the examination of conscience: In order to make progress on the journey of perfection, let us practise the examination of conscience daily. The second was on spiritual direction: Let us have recourse with confidence to spiritual direction in order to receive assistance in responding to the movements of the Holy Spirit with generosity and to direct ourselves purposefully towards holiness. We now propose to merge the two, for reasons of brevity. However, further reflection is needed on the suitability of such a procedure, which joins together, even on the level of motivation, realities which are different. We should remember that the structure of PdR1 and PdR2 is different from that of the current text, limits itself to a simple listing of frequent confession, daily examination of conscience and spiritual direction. Furthermore the Commission considered that it was appropriate to retain the classical terminology of spiritual direction, rather than replace this with spiritual accompaniment as was proposed (cf. Prot. N.; VII-00172]
(13) The Commission underlined the validity of this recommendation, but as it stands it is very weak. It seemed necessary to complete the text by mentioning the value of communal celebration of penance as a sign and a tool to build up fraternal life. “The renewal of the practice of penance must be carried out especially from the communal aspect: in other words, penance should be understood as reconciliation with God and with the Church, as an action that is both individual and social. It is recommended that it be celebrated on the occasion of gatherings, because the atmosphere created will encourage the brothers to receive the sacrament of reconciliation. But the celebrations need to be well prepared, and may also precede the celebration of the Eucharist”. In fact, however, PdR1 retained the current text without making any addition. Subsequently, some evaluations noted that the paragraph on community celebration of penance comes up suddenly without any connection between personal experience of reconciliation and the communal dimension. [VII-00188]. Therefore, in PdR2 the present recommendation is made because it draws attention to the social dimension of conversion and mention of this communal form of celebration is envisaged not only for our fraternities but also for the people of God.
(14) In PdR1 the Commission considered that it was relevant to mention the pastoral duty of ministers with regard to the fidelity of the brothers to the Sacraments and spiritual direction. Only one evaluation [Prot. N.; VII-00032] expressed unease over the introduction of the new text and would have preferred it to say: “the ministers and guardians should provide ample opportunities for the brothers to be faithful to the Sacraments and the use of spiritual direction.” The Commission feels duty bound to retain the text as previously formulated, where the ministers and guardians are exhorted to exercise the utmost care, which includes offering ample opportunities. It was thought that the text which has been introduced has special value in reminding the friars of the more important aspects of fraternal and pastoral service of the ministers.
|Current text||Proposed revised Text|
|Constitutiones (2002)||Constitutions (1990)||Constitutions|
|107,1. Facultatem ad sacramentales confessiones fratrum excipiendas confert, praeter Ordinarium loci, superior maior, et etiam in singulis casibus, ad modum actus, superior localis.||107,1. In addition to the local Ordinary, the major superior may grant the faculty for hearing the sacramental confessions of the brothers. The local superior may also do so ad modum actus in individual cases.||Current text (107,1) with changes
1. In addition to the local Ordinary, the major superior may grant faculties for hearing the sacramental confessions of the brothers. The guardian may do the same, but only for a single instance in individual cases (1).
|107,2. Quilibet sacerdos Ordinis, a superiore maiore proprio approbatus, confessiones fratrum ubique terrarum excipere valet.||107,2. Any priest of the Order, approved by his own major superior, may hear the confessions of the brothers anywhere in the world.||Current text (107,2) with changes
2. Any priest of the Order who has received faculties from his own major superior may hear the confessions of the brothers anywhere in the world(2).
|107,3. Fratres cuilibet sacerdoti, facultatem a quovis Ordinario habenti, libere peccata confiteri possunt.||107,3. The brothers may freely confess their sins to any priest having faculties from any Ordinary.||Current text (107,3) with changes
3. The brothers are free to confess their sins to any priest who has received faculties from any Ordinary.
|107,4. Confessarii prae occulis habeant monitum sancti Francisci, ne irascantur neve conturbentur propter alicuius peccatum, sed in Domino eum omni bonitate tractent.||107,4. Let confessors keep in mind the warning of Saint Francis that they do not become angry or disturbed at the sin of another but treat him with all kindness in the Lord.||Current text (107,4)
4. Let confessors keep in mind the warning of Saint Francis that they do not become angry or disturbed by the sin of another but treat him with all kindness in the Lord.
(1) A simple change of terminology, following the general principle. One person observed: “It seems unlikely that a friar who does not have jurisdiction could grant jurisdiction. Now there are guardians who are not priests. The Latin text needs to be completed, for example by stating: “as long as they are priests”. [Prot. N.; VII-00039]. The Commission recognised the accuracy of the observation, but did not regard it appropriate to insert this detail into the text: … by the guardian, if he is a priest. The General Chapter will need to give its opinion on this point.
(2) The changes in this § and in the following one are made to harmonise the terminology as much as possible with that of the CCL. PdR1 stated: “may hear the confession of all the friars”. Now we are returning to the current text: “may hear the confession of the friars”.
|CONSTITUTIONES||Constitutions (1990)||Proposed revised Text|
|108,1. Illa caritate invicem diligentes qua Christus dilexit nos, si frater in discrimine versetur, eum non effugiamus, sed sollicite adiuvemus, et, si ceciderit non eius iudices simus sed custodes, eius famam servantes, et magis eum diligamus, memores unumquemque nostrum in peiora ruiturum, nisi Deus sua bonitate nos praeservaret.||108. 1. Loving one another with that love with which Christ loved us, should a brother be in difficulty, let us not avoid him, but rather be eager to help him. If he falls, let us not be his judges but his protectors, preserving his reputation; let us love him even more, remembering that each one of us would have done worse had not God in His goodness preserved us.||Current text (108,1) with changes
1. Loving one another with that love with which Christ loved us, we should not avoid a brother who is in difficulty, but rather be eager to help him. If he falls, let us not be his judges but let us protect his good name (1). We should love him all the more, remembering that each one of us would do far worse if God in His goodness did not preserve us.
2. However, if a brother is guilty of a crime against a person or an institution, by the same law of charity, which requires justice and respect for the rights and dignity of all, especially the most vulnerable, we should help him to assume his responsibilities, make good the harm he has done and accept the canonical and civil consequences of his behaviour(3). Indeed, responsibility for an offence always rests with the one who commits it.
3. In order to prevent sin, superiors should encourage the brothers to observe in all things our own law and that of the Church, as well as civil legislation, as long as this does not conflict with divine or canon law. But if a brother commits a crime, or there is a danger of its being repeated, the ministers should take all possible suitable measures, including cooperation with the civil authorities, to prevent it. In any case, even a brother who sins or is suspected of a crime should always be accorded the rights and protections enjoyed by any accused person.
|108,2. Superiores vero fratribus peccantibus vel in periculo constitutis paterna misericordia praesto sint, ut eis auxilia opportuna et efficacia iuxta Deum afferant.||108,2. Let the ministers show a heart of fatherly mercy to sinful brothers or to those in danger so that they might offer them appropriate and efficacious help as God would have it.||Current text (108,2)
4. Let the ministers, with fatherly compassion, be close to brothers who sin or who are in danger, and offer them appropriate and effective help as God would have it.
5. Superiors should act with the same solicitude, as far as lies within their power and competence, towards persons and communities who may have been harmed by the sins of the brothers.
|108,3. Poenas, praesertim canonicas, ne imponant nisi manifesta necessitate adigantur et quidem cum omni prudentia et caritate, firmis tamen praescriptis iuris universalis.||108,3. Let them not impose penalties, especially canonical ones, unless compelled by manifest necessity, and then with all prudence and charity, maintaining nonetheless the prescriptions of universal law.||Current text (108,3)
6. They should not impose penalties, particularly canonical ones, unless compelled by manifest necessity, and then with all prudence and charity, maintaining nonetheless the prescriptions of universal law.
|108,4. Memores semper sint verborum sancti Francisci in epistola ad quendam ministrum: “In hoc volo cognoscere si diligis Deum et me servum suum et tuum, si feceris istud, scilicet quod non sit aliquis frater in mundo qui peccaverit quantumcumque potuerit peccare, quod, postquam viderit oculos tuos, unquam recedat sine misericordia tua, si quaerit misericordiam; et si non quaereret misericordiam, tu quaeras ab eo si vult misericordiam. Et si millies postea coram oculis tuis peccaret, dilige eum plus quam me ad hoc, ut trahas eum ad Dominum”.||108,4. Let them always remember the words of Saint Francis in his letter to a certain minister: “In this way I wish to know that you love the Lord and me, His servant and yours, if you do this: may there not be any brother in the world who has sinned – however much he could have sinned – who, after he has looked into your eyes, would ever depart without your mercy, if he is looking for mercy. If he is not looking for mercy, you should ask him if he wants mercy. And if he sins a thousand times before your eyes, love him more than me that you may draw him to the Lord”.||Current text (108,4)
7. Let them always remember the words of Saint Francis in his letter to a certain minister: “I should like you to prove that you love the Lord and me, His servant and yours, in the following way: there should be no brother in the world who has sinned – however greatly he may have sinned – who, after he has looked into your eyes, would ever depart without your mercy, if he is looking for mercy. If he is not looking for mercy, you should ask him if he wants it. And if he sins a thousand times before your eyes, you should love him more than you love me, so that you may draw him to the Lord”.
(1) The text has been slightly modified, deleting the noun custodes (protectors) to avoid any impression of connivance and co-operation. At the same time the Commission reasserted the right of each person to his or her good name, and the duty of everyone to protect it.
(2) The whole section was appreciated by the Order. However, many observations were received and most of these proposed alternative texts aimed at offering legislation that reflects Christian and Franciscan sensitivities, and at the same time, addresses the various aspects of the problem [Prot. N.; VII-00189; Prot. .N.; VII-00205; Prot. N.; VII-00189]. In the light of many suggestions PdR2 offers a new formulation, especially for paragraphs 2, 3, and 5.
(3) The text was developed in the light of the many proposals which were received from the Order and follow a full and fraternal debate within the Commission itself. Even though the text still reflects some problems which have arisen in particular areas, it still retains its universal validity still remains. It was compiled in the light of the recent Instruction of CICLSAL, The service of authority and obedience. Faciem tuam, Domine, requiram (11 May, 2008): “If the invitation of St. Francis of Assisi to forgive the brother who sins can be considered a precious general rule, it must be recognized that there can be behaviours in the members of some communities of consecrated persons that seriously harm their neighbour and that imply a responsibility vis-à-vis people outside the community and also within the institutions themselves to which they belong. If it is necessary to have understanding for the wrongdoing of the individual, it is also necessary to have a rigorous sense of responsibility and charity towards those who are eventually damaged by the incorrect behaviour of some consecrated person. May he or she who errs know that he or she must answer personally for the consequences of his or her acts. Understanding for the confrere cannot exclude justice, especially in the face of vulnerable persons and victims of abuse. To accept and recognize the real evil and to assume the responsibility for it and its consequences are already steps on the path that leads to mercy: as for Israel who distanced itself from the Lord, the acceptance of the consequences of evil, that is, the experience of the Exile, is the first step in once again taking up the path of conversion and of rediscovering more deeply that real relationship with Him” (n. 25 e).
- The English text of the “Proposed Revision” of the Commission differs from available versions of the Constitutions published before 2002. The translation was revised, comparing and correcting existing English versions, to make it as faithful as possible to the original Latin. ↑
- Cf. Th. Matura, Il radicalismo evangelico alle origini della vita cristiana (Nuovi sentieri Emmaus). Roma, Edizioni Borla, 1981; 16. ↑
- Cf. VC 10; 15; 16; 17; 18; ecc. ↑
- A. Pigna, “La vita consacrata”. Nodi teologici e soluzioni (Verbum 4). Roma, Edizioni OCD, 1996; 164-165. ↑
- Schema Constitutionum nostrarum. Textus continuus quinquies emendatus cum indice alphabetico (Pro manuscripto ad usum PP. Capitularium). Romae, Officium Secretariatus C.C.L., 1968; n. 77. ↑
- Cf. Th. Matura, Francesco parla di Dio. Studi sui temi degli Scritti di San Francesco (Presenza di S. Francesco 37). Milano 1992;125‑126; S. Blanco Pachequo, Sequela in DTVC 1606‑1614. ↑
- Cf. Th. Matura, o.c. 128‑129; O. van Asseldonk, Insegnamenti biblici privilegiati negli Scritti di San Francesco d’Assisi in Analecta OFMCap. n. 3 (1979) 146‑165; Cf. La Lettera e lo Spirito II, 321-355. ↑
- Cf. Acta 1968, II, 45. ↑
- Cf. Acta 1968, II, 101; 439. ↑
- R. Manselli, San Francesco d’Assisi. Editio maior. Cinisello Balsamo, Ed. San Paolo, 2002; 129. ↑
- Cf. K. Esser, Il Testamento di San Francesco d’Assisi. Milano, Ed. Francescane “Cammino”, 1978; 114-118; Cf. D. Flood, Francesco d’Assisi e il movimento francescano. Padova, Edizioni Messaggero, 1991; 43-44; R. Manselli, o. c. 129; F. Iozzelli, Francesco d’Assisi tra Vangelo e Chiesa in Frate Francesco 67 (2001) 11; Cf. P. Maranesi, Facere paenitentiam. La conversione di Francesco d’Assisi: confronto critico tra il Testamento e le Biografie. S. Maria degli Angeli-Assisi, Ed. Porziuncola, 2007; 101-107; Idem, L’eredità di Frate Francesco. Lettura storico-critica del Testamento. S. Maria degli Angeli-Assisi, Ed. Porziuncola, 2009; 117-120. ↑
- Schema provisorium capitis tertii Constitutionum OFMCap. a Commission Capitulari Legislationis elaboratum et iudicio Provinciarum submissum (Pro Manuscripto) Ad usum exclusivum Fratrum Ordinis nostri. Romae, Officium Secretariatus C.C.L., 1967; 156; 158-159. ↑
- O. van Asseldonk, Ordo semper renovandus! La Riforma cappuccina come richiamo a una continua riforma nella Chiesa in Le origini della Riforma cappuccina. Atti del Convegno di studi storici (Camerino, 18-21 settembre 1978): 397-412; Cf. La Lettera e lo Spirito I, 302. ↑
- Vita di penitenza e di continua conversione nelle attuali condizioni dell’Ordine in Capitolo generale straordinario OFMCap. – Documenti principali (Roma 1974) I. 2 (p. 56). Cf. Analecta OFMCap 90 (1974) 319. ↑
- Cf. Analecta OFMCap. 84 (1968) 313-317. ↑
- Optatus van Asseldonk, Autenticità cappuccina e genuinità francescana in L’Italia Francescana 42 (1967) 489-503; Cf. La Lettera e lo Spirito I, 125. ↑
- Cf. Project 2006, n. 78,4 and note 274. ↑
- Vita di penitenza e di continua conversione nelle attuali condizioni dell’Ordine … IV.1. (p. 65-66). Cf. Analecta OFMCap 90 (1974) 323. ↑
- Cf. L. C. Mohlberg (ed.), Sacramentarium Veronense (RED. Series maior. Fontes I). Roma 1966; n. 223. ↑
- Vita di penitenza e di continua conversione nelle attuali condizioni dell’Ordine … III.1.2d (p. 64). Cf. Analecta OFMCap 90 (1974) 319-322. ↑
- Cf. B. Maggioni, Padre nostro. Milano, Ed. Vita e Pensiero, 1998; 95-105. ↑
- Cf. J. Vanier, La comunità. Luogo del perdono e della festa. Milano, Jaca Book, 1995. ↑
- Schema provisorium capitum VII – XII Constitutionum OFMCap. a Commission Capitulari Legislationis elaboratum et sudicio Provinciarum submissum. Pars prima. Textus continuus cum notulis (Pro Manuscripto). Romae, Officium Secretariatus C.C.L., 1968; 21. ↑
- Vita di penitenza e di continua conversione nelle attuali condizioni dell’Ordine … III.1.2c (p. 64). Cf. Analecta OFMCap 90 (1974) 322. ↑