Table of Contents
- Until the French Revolution
- After the French Revolution
- Current Ministries
I have the agreeable task of writing about the history of the works of mercy performed by the friars, especially those concerned with the relief of the human mind and body or which touch on various aspects of family and social life. The field is enormous, almost limitless. There are so many and varied things to be said that it is difficult even to mention all of them, let alone to treat them in the detail they merit. We must perforce limit ourselves to the more outstanding achievements.
A brief preamble will help understand what follows.
This kind of Capuchin apostolate flows from a pure and authentic Franciscan tradition. As sons and heirs of St. Francis, his first followers shared his love and concern for the poor and lowly. In the ebb and flow of life they shared their joys and sorrows, heeding the words of the Apostle of the gentiles: “Rejoice with those who rejoice, weep with those who weep.” This witness and service to their fellowmen, practiced from the very beginning, was one of the basic reasons for the universal esteem, almost amounting to veneration, in which the Capuchins were held by the common people. It also accounts for the amazing spread of the Order and its fruitful labours among all peoples and nations.
In this article it will not be possible to enter into the progressive development of this apostolate, the many forms it assumed, its philosophy or spiritual significance, the difficulties encountered and results achieved. We will limit ourselves to a simple presentation, albeit incomplete, of some of their works or mercy. It should make us aware of the great accomplishments of the past and lead to some serious soul searching on our part.
In our choice of subject matter we have tried to select examples of witness and service most frequently encountered in the Order which the reader may study at greater length in the published literature, as well as to single out some lesser known achievements to arouse the interest of scholars and researchers.
We have divided this study into two sections. The first embraces the activities of the friars from the full spread of the Order to the time of the French Revolution. The second treats those works of mercy which, because of changed times and emerging social structures, they have had to fulfil in other ways up to the present.
The Capuchin reform was confirmed and ratified by the seal of charity. From the beginning its members dedicated themselves in thought and deed to serving the weaker members of the Mystical Body of Christ. They shared the special charism of our Seraphic Father St. Francis as found in his command to his sons, that they “diligently serve the lepers for the love of our Lord Jesus Christ, who for our sakes deigned to be called a leper.” He often exhorted them that “whenever candidates, whether noble or commoners, come “to us, they are to be told among other things that they are to serve the lepers and live with them.”
The first Capuchins showed themselves worthy of such a father. Their care and charity for the sick and plague-stricken at the time of the Catholic reformation contributed mightily toward reviving the spirits of clergy and laity. Those who came after carried on this eminently Christian apostolate.
Even before they had any thought of founding a religious order the first friars dedicated themselves tirelessly to caring for the plague-stricken in Camerino. Through this service they earned the highest praise from both nobles and common people. Later they laid the foundations for this apostolate in Rome, Naples, Genoa and other cities of Italy. It was looked upon as the trademark of the Order. However much the Order might later be confirmed by papal documents, it was already authenticated as far as the people were concerned by the seal of heroic charity. So that such a needful service might not depend on the whim of individuals, the Constitutions of 1536 ordained: “Since they who are detached from this world will find it sweet, just and charitable to die for the love of Him who died for us on the cross, we ordain that during a plague the friars shall succour the afflicted according to the directions of their vicars. The vicars, however, shall always be prudently alert to such situations.”
This article, calling for heroic charity, was omitted in later editions of the Constitutions.
Nevertheless the history of the following centuries shows clearly that the Capuchins always and everywhere proved themselves to be the servants of the sick. It would take a large volume even to begin to tell the story of their accomplishments. Here we offer but a few examples.
During the sixteenth and first part of the seventeenth century nearly every province of Italy suffered from severe epidemics. Everywhere the Capuchins performed heroic feats of charity; in Padua in 1555; in the Venetian Republic in 1575 and 1576. When the plague decimated Milan in 1576 the friars, at the invitation of St. Charles Borromeo, cheerfully laboured for two years.
Outside Italy, too, the Capuchins, “emulating the glory of the older friars, carried on this traditional ministry with no less enthusiasm.” This apostolate was the principal reason for the extraordinary spread of the Order and the universal esteem in which it was held. They were active in Paris (1580); Rouen (1583); Toulouse (1588); Bordeaux (1605) among others. In Spain, as early as 1589, a number of friars sacrificed their lives in serving the sick as they did in the Low Countries in 1595, 1597 and 1603. They carried out this ministry in the German principalities as well. There were never lacking martyrs of charity who provided for the bodily and spiritual needs of the sick, as contemporary sources abundantly prove.
The chronicler Marcellino of Pisa writes in the third volume of his Annales (Lyon, 1676): “In the years of which I write (1612-1634) a deadly epidemic wrought fearful havoc. Everywhere our friars sacrificed their lives generously. It would take many pages to do justice to the thousand services they rendered. I cannot be blamed if all do not get the credit they deserve. But future generations should know that a large number of friars bravely risked their lives in the service of the sick. As elephants are spurred on to battle at the sight of blood, it will suffice for future Capuchins to see these valiant warriors in the difficult and revolting arena of the plague fighting bravely and winning an eternal crown of glory.”
These historical facts should be broadcast in our own time. The outstanding works of charity performed by our confreres as a witness to Christian love should never be forgotten.
Alessandro Manzoni in his famous novel I Promessi Sposi immortalized the work of the Capuchins in Milan. In Brixin more than 170 friars laboured among the sick. In Venice over 200 hastened to help, not a few of them losing their lives. The same might be said of other provinces where the friars offered not only the work of their hands but their very lives as well. It is claimed that in all more than 400 of them bore outstanding witness to the people and many of them died in the plague.
What the bishop of Marseilles wrote in 1720 of his own experience could easily be duplicated in other dioceses: “I have loved them (the Capuchins) and admired them for a long time. But during the past five months my esteem for them has grown immeasurably. During this time I witnessed what their zeal, heroism, charity and compassion were able to accomplish. No danger could daunt them where there was question of the health and well being of their fellow men.”
“When the plague broke out they supported me in everything, and have continued to do so without ceasing, with the same fervour as on the first day. If it were not for the Capuchins many people would be in dire straits … I can find fault with them in only one thing. Ignoring my pleas and warnings they move about recklessly as if there were no plague in Marseilles. Forty-two of them have died and many are still sick…I know very few Capuchins in this province who have not volunteered to take their places. I simply cannot describe my feelings about the indefatigable and intrepid zeal of the Capuchins, and how much I ought to honour and thank them publicly …Not one Capuchin left the city, not one who did not throw himself wholeheartedly into the work, not one who did not labour with complete disregard for his own safety to the very end.”
Many more testimonies could be cited, up to the time of the French Revolution which wrought such havoc among all religious orders.
In Italy, especially from the middle of the seventeenth century, it was the usual thing for the civil authorities to call upon the Capuchins to care for the sick in the public hospitals, in Milan (1648), Parma (1680), in Florence, Postoia, Piacenza, Cremona, Ferrara and in other cities. In more recent times, when entire religious communities have taken up this ministry, one or the other Capuchin from a nearby friary would be available to help. Sometimes a number of communities in any given province was assigned to the hospital apostolate. The hospitals committed to our care offer a wide range of services, from general patient care to specialized services for the aged and the handicapped.
Outside Italy, although there are exceptions, the friars are not ordinarily committed to the care of the sick in public institutions, at least not to the extent that an entire community is given this work. One or more priests, however, are frequently assigned as hospital chaplains.
A few words must be said about a related ministry preparing the terminally ill for a happy death. Sometimes particular friars of certain provinces were assigned the duty of encouraging the dying to receive the sacraments. Love lent them wings for this pastoral ministry so that they would take off at any moment of the day or night to anyone who might be sick, whether they lived close by or at a distance, whether they were rich or poor, suffering from a contagious disease or lying in stinking filth and squalor.
Mention must be made too of the friars, who in addition to their daily service of the sick in private homes and sanitoria found time to establish associations and write books to guide those who would follow them. They also circulated leaflets to instruct the people how to prepare for a happy death.
For centuries the Capuchins have provided spiritual care for the troops fighting in defence of their country. It is hard to find any important military campaign where they were not present. Many served at the battle of Lepanto in 1571, and in the wars against the Turks in the closing decades of the sixteenth century and the beginning of the seventeenth. Outstanding among them was Lawrence of Brindisi who distinguished himself at the siege of Stuhlweissenburg. Every province has its honour role of heroic friars who as conscripts or volunteers were ready to serve the men in such critical times. They won fame during the Thirty Years War when the Swedish armies ravaged many German principalities. They distributed food to starving families. They inveighed against the excesses of the troops. They acted as intermediaries of peace between the warring nations. Through their efforts they were often able to save the lives of innocent civilians.
The last half of the seventeenth century witnessed almost uninterrupted warfare between the Turks and the Christian powers, conflicts that were approved and supported by the Holy See. The Capuchins had no small part in cementing military alliances as well as serving on the battlefield. Mark of Aviano played an important role in raising the siege of Vienna in 1683. Thirty-four friars from the Vienna friary devoted themselves to caring for the wounded and dying soldiers, in saying Mass and in other spiritual ministrations. Seven of them paid the supreme sacrifice.
Nowadays in many countries religious are subject to military service like the rest of their fellow citizens. The chaplaincy has official status so that volunteer services lost some of their importance. But the heroism of the friars of every nationality and their service to the troops on the field of battle or in the hospitals is written large on the pages of history.
Visiting, assisting, and comforting prisoners is a splendid work of mercy. Our friars have cheerfully committed themselves to this ministry too. Not content with rendering personal service, they have established or promoted societies to help the families and children of the incarcerated and aid the prisoners themselves upon their release. In the eighteenth century a group of French Capuchins presented a proposal for prison reform to the national assembly. The friars have also served as regular prison chaplains.
In our times the prison apostolate occupies our men more than ever before. By 1880 in Italy alone they were working as full time chaplains in some fifteen penal institutions.
The friars were often called upon to give spiritual assistance to those condemned to death, either because the inmates refused to confess to another priest, or because a special friar of the community was assigned to this ministry. Others founded associations of the faithful which came to the aid of the unfortunate men doomed to die. There are many stories of extraordinary services rendered to the condemned by the friars. Artists have painted scenes of this wonderful ministry of charity. They depict the Capuchins counselling those about to be executed as well as those dying of natural causes. Some chaplains have written books encouraging others to take up this ministry.
Here is a little known service which the members of the French provinces rendered cheerfully, lovingly, without pay and often at the risk of their lives, for which they earned the applause of the civil authorities. In Paris from 1616 to 1744; in St. Malo (1714); in Alencon (1744) and Le Havre (1759) the Capuchins were the firemen. In Rouen the fire house was called “La Capucine. ” Cardinal Richelieu is said to have called the Capuchins: “Hommes de feu et de peste. ” It became their popular nickname.
The Order’s first legislators decreed that in times of famine the friars should beg from door to door for the poor. All were exhorted, for the honour of holy poverty, to distribute to the poor whatever surplus food they might have. This article of the Constitutions has been deleted. But the love of the friars for the poor and oppressed, even when it meant opposing the powers that be, has never diminished. “It has always been the aim of the Order of Capuchins, which was brought into being and nourished by the poverty of Christ to take care of the poor and show them the greatest charity.”
Following the lead of Matthew of Bascio many preachers, spurred on by the love of the poor and downtrodden, founded the so-called “Montes Pietatis” (credit unions) or similar societies for rescuing the poor from the greed of the money lenders. Even in the early days of the order we encounter the names of men like Joseph of Ferno, Anthony of Pinerolo, James of Molfetta, Louis of Giovinazzo, Bernardine of Colpetrazzo, Stephen of Faenza, Jerome of Forli and Clement of Castelazzo. In 1569 Matthias of Salo founded the “Society of Mercy” to help the poor at Nola, and another at Salo. Francis of Milan built an orphanage at Brixin. Peter of Calatayud founded an orphanage at Ancona and a house at Naples for endangered young women. Francis of Seville founded a society in Alicante which he called Convite de la Caridad whose members pledged themselves to visit the sick and bring alms to the poor and oppressed. Antonio Barberini established credit unions in Assisi and Senigallia.
The friars accepted the task committed to them in 1649-1650 by Pope Innocent X of providing bodily and spiritual assistance to those who were suffering from cold and hunger during the jubilee year in Rome. Even before this Urban VIII arranged for the Capuchins to go about the Kingdom of Naples to aid the authorities in providing help for earthquake victims.
In the latter half of the seventeenth century Apollinaris of Schwyz, with the full support of the ecclesiastical and civil authorities, preached to the Swiss on the evils of usury and succeeded in persuading the courts, in 1679, to ban certain types of high-interest money lending. Paul of Montagna belongs to the same tradition of fighters for social justice. He promoted the credit unions in his books and pamphlets and helped lift the burden of usury from the backs of the poor.
With the overthrow of the old order toward the end of the eighteenth century the friars had to suffer persecution because of their way of life and religious profession and were no longer able to carry out their traditional services to the poor. Taking into consideration the great social changes that had taken place, they adapted older forms of apostolic ministry and developed new ones better suited to meet the needs of the times. Gently and persistently the hidden apostolic power of the Order was at work, always in accord with the original charism of mercy. Utilizing the latest contributions of the sociological and psychological sciences, the friars were on hand wherever there was suffering of soul or body.
The dreadful plagues that scourged the nations in times past have fortunately all but disappeared in modern times. Nevertheless whenever epidemics did occur, whether it was Asiatic flu, cholera, smallpox or other diseases the friars remembered their historic tradition and promptly came to the aid of the victims, some of them sacrificing their lives. Although deadly epidemics are rare in Europe they have not been totally eliminated in mission countries. Loving and unselfish care of the lepers was exemplified in the lives of Daniel of Samarate (died 1925), Ignatius of Ispra (died 1935) and Marcellino of Cusano (died 1940). Service to hospital patients has been kept alive in Italy. In 1889 the friars there served in 82 hospitals. In 1950 the number had grown to 155.
Many modern convalescent homes and sanitoria owe their origin to the zeal of the friars, so do a number of religious communities of women who devote themselves to nursing the sick, especially those without financial means. One of them was the servant of God, Daniel of Torricella (died 1945) founder of the Missionary Franciscans of the Word Incarnate. Another was Jacob Ghazir (died 1954) known as the “St. Vincent de Paul of Lebanon” who founded the Franciscans of the Holy Cross who perform works of charity in orphanages, hospitals and rest homes. Noteworthy also is Charles of Genoa (died 1859) who worked with deaf mutes. He learned and used the sign language to bring them human and religious comfort. He founded a home to shelter them and provide them with a Christian education. He published spiritual conferences in sign language for their use and for those who would succeed him in this apostolate.
In recent years a number of friars have joined in the battle against alcoholism and drug abuse which claims so many victims among the young, and not so young as well. One of the pioneers in this field was the famous Irish Capuchin, Father Theobald Matthew (died 1865) known as the apostle of temperance by reason of his long and courageous battle against the scourge of alcohol abuse. Some friars have established and direct rehabilitation centres.
When conflicts between labour and management reached an acute stage in the last century, our friars tackled the problem in an effort to bring about mutual respect for the rights and obligations of each class. They preached and fostered equitable settlements. In their writings they combatted the evils of usury as well as the inordinate power of the rich. Among the proponents of Christian social justice Louis of Besse was outstanding. He has rightly been called the apostle of Christian Action in France.
Among the friends of the working class we must also mention those who worked tirelessly to provide impoverished young men with the skills they needed to earn a living so that they could look forward to supporting themselves by working at a trade. One such was the Swiss Capuchin Theodosius Florentini (died 1865) who helped boys and young men trapped in idleness and poverty. He erected institutions and installed looms and other equipment for vocational training. In them the youths could learn a variety of skills and receive a Christian education at the same time. Father Florentini also worked hard to secure a living wage for workingmen. He also took an interest in training young women especially to prepare them for teaching and nursing careers in private homes and hospitals. He founded a religious congregation dedicated to teaching girls and caring for the sick.
In Austria Bernardine Thuil (died 1893) was highly respected for his work in educating and sheltering poor girls. He provided assistance for servant girls and the poor in general.
The problems of the workingmen were also the concern of Prosper of Martigne (died 1901), founder of the society known as Oeuvre des apprentiz for sheltering and educating poor young men. His confrere Amadeus of Neant laboured to provide humane and dignified assistance for the unemployed. Another great social worker was Joseph of Aurensan (died 1922) who founded and managed more than 50 rural saving cooperatives known as Caisses rurales.
In our modern society the working classes exercise widespread influence and power. And they encounter material and spiritual problems on their jobs. The Capuchins, true to their ancestral traditions, have become involved in business offices, factories and farms, where they endeavour to preserve the faith of the workers and educate them in the principles of Christian sociology. To this end they have organized and directed workingmen’s associations for Christian education and provided material aid for them and their families. Along with the witness of their own Christian lives, this is the function of the so-called “priest workers” (pretres ouvriers) and “worker chaplains” (cappellani del lavoro) and others like them who carry out their ministry right on the job.
Economic pressures have forced many modern workers to leave their homes and country to earn a living abroad. Obviously this situation involves spiritual and physical dangers for the workers themself and the families they leave behind. Here too the friars, responding generously to the call of the Church, have served as chaplains and provided help for many workers of varying nationalities and backgrounds living far from their homelands. They have set up recreation centres and vacation spots for the workmen, schools and shelters for their children.
Nor have our friars neglected the spiritual and material needs of political and religious refugees who were forced to flee their countries to save their lives and their faith. They have also provided priestly service to merchant seamen and their families, especially during the time of long voyages. In some areas they carry out an apostolate among migrants and gypsies, people with no fixed abode and who live for the most part in their wagons. The friars look after parents and children and are advocates of humane treatment for them.
No age group and no need has ever lacked the services of competent friars. This includes abandoned or neglected children. The Seraphic Work of Charity was founded by Cyprian Froehlich (died 1931). This well-known organization cares for children in need. It has spread over all parts of Germany and has had remarkable success in its work for thousands of children and teenagers. Pope Pius XII praised this charitable organization on the occasion of its golden jubilee and urged the Capuchins to continue to promote it enthusiastically.
The servant of God Aloysius Amigo y Ferrer (died 1934) founded two religious institutes, the Capuchin Third Order Regular and the Third Order Capuchinesses of the Holy Family for the education, or rather rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents. In Sion (Switzerland) there was a school for re-educating young people with serious learning problems in the nineteenth century. When violent earthquakes devastated the Abruzzi area, the general superiors of the Order offered the Pope their friary in Tusculum to house homeless children and orphans, for which kindness Pope Benedict XV expressed his deep appreciation. In some places the friars have established orphanages where they house, feed and educate children deprived of parental care.
Immediately after World War II a number of projects were undertaken to save children of both sexes who had no means of support and who faced serious moral dangers. Humilis of Genoa (died 1969) addressed himself to the problem. He searched out needy children, educated them without cost through Sorriso Francescano, an organization he founded in 1945.
In Giulianova (Teramo-Abruzzo) the friars started La Piccola Opera Charitas to care for abandoned and retarded boys and girls. In more than one community the Capuchins were the spiritual directors of the so-called “Boys Towns” and in quite a few places established and directed this new apostolate.
Solicitude for young women in dangerous circumstances is nothing new in the Order. The friars either founded societies or supported existing ones to help them. Among them we find Bernardine Thuil in Austria, Charles of Genoa, and Celestine Labroque in France. This service includes shelters for pregnant girls, where they can receive compassionate psychological counselling and the mothers and babies get a chance for education, or rehabilitation. Recently this apostolate has been promoted under the care of Casa del Sorriso.
A word must be added about the elderly who are also in need of special human and spiritual attention. At the turn of the century Joseph of Lyons (died 1925) was active in promoting their bodily and spiritual welfare. New forms of assistance are now available. The servant of God, Jacob of Ghazir built a retirement home for elderly priests and nuns called the Hospice of Christ the King in Nahr-el-Kalb (Beirut) in 1951, Retirement and rest homes for the elderly poor are maintained and clubs have been started for recreation and leisure time activities.
From time immemorial the friars have been accustomed to feed the poor who flocked to the friary door for help. It is a tradition started by St. Francis himself who wished that the friars share their alms with the other poor. The early Constitutions of the Capuchins exhorted the friars to distribute all surplus goods, especially food, to the poor as a witness to their love of poverty. In one way or another his followers have faithfully carried out his wishes, especially in time of public disasters and famine. In the sixteenth century, for example, one of the friaries in Feldkirch, Austria provided more than 200 meals each day for the poor. In other houses of the province the superiors served free meals to indigent students.
The nineteenth century saw the establishment of “St. Anthony’s Bread,” a charitable operation that owed its origin to the well known Anthony Mary of Lavaur (died 1907). The friars were among its greatest promoters through their distribution of bread to the needy who came to the friaries. To meet contemporary demands many friars have expanded this service by setting up “soup kitchens” close to the friary where they serve not only bread and substantial meals but offer a chance to take courses in Christian doctrine to those who are interested.
“It would be dishonourable indeed if sons of the Church sluggishly allowed the word of salvation to be silenced or impeded by the technical difficulties of the admittedly enormous expenses which are characteristic of these instruments. Hence the Sacred Synod admonishes these sons that they are in duty bound to uphold and assist Catholic newspapers, magazines, movie enterprises, and radio and television stations and programs whose main purpose is to spread and defend the truth and to strengthen the Christian texture of human society” (Inter Mirifica no. 17).
The Capuchins anticipated this serious mandate of Vatican Council II as far as their modest resources allowed and took the lead in the apostolate of the press to propagate sound principles of thought and action and refute errors. Some friars founded press associations to carry out this purpose, for example, the Società Buona Stampa by Jucundo of Viglio (died 1915). Something similar had been launched in Austria by Ladislaus of Dornbirn (died 1876).
Today the mandate of Vatican II is carried out in a number of countries by friars who are involved in radio and television programming. Foremost among them was the unforgettable Mariano of Turin (died 1972) known in Italy as the “television apostle. ”
On the occasion of the fourth centenary of the canonical approval of the Capuchin Order, Pope Pius XI sent a congratulatory message to the minister general, Melchior of Benisa, dated June 23, 1928: “History teaches how hard the friars laboured in hospitals, prisons and in times of disaster to carry out their mission… While heartily congratulating you on this most happy occasion, we anticipate that, with the enthusiasm stirred up by the centenary celebration, you may retain incorrupt for all future times this special characteristic of your Order. which is a closer imitation of your father Francis.
Pope Pius XII, after voicing his intense satisfaction at the interprovincial meeting of the friars in Rome, November 21-27, 1948, to discuss the demands of the modern apostolate, wrote the following to the minister general, Clement of Milwaukee on December 8 of that year: “From their very inception the Friars Minor Capuchin have always considered it their special vocation to carry out works of charity and the apostolate for the benefit of humble people. Why should they not now expand this apostolic ministry with greater zeal than ever when the need has increased so enormously? The times demand this of them, not only in their churches, but whenever there is an occasion of exercising their priestly ministry, in the fields, in offices, in factories, in hospitals and prisons, in the midst of working peoples, as brother to brother, so as to win all for Christ. Let them mix their apostolic sweat with the sweat of the workingmen; let them liberate their minds from the darkness of error and lead them to the light; let them endeavour to bring peace to those souls so often disturbed by hatred and conflicts, and fill them with divine love… With hearts filled with divine charity, spare no efforts to bring this about. Go among the masses as apostles of peace, teachers of truth, supports of piety and religion. Be a shining example to all so that you may be able to win their hearts and lead them to Jesus Christ. Thus with the help of divine grace, emulating the holy and glorious deeds of your forebears, you may bring forth ever richer fruits of salvation.’
Perhaps, this will help us remember the old days!
- Rom. 12, 15. ↑
- Actus beati Francisci et sociorum eius, ed. Sabatier, Paris 1902, eh. 23, p.93. ↑
- Speculum perfectionis, ec. Sabatier, Paris 1898, eh. 44, p. 78. ↑
- Cf. Melchior of Pobladura, Historia generalis Ordinis Fratrum Minorum Capuccinorum, l, Rome 1947, 283-291; II/2, Rome 1948, 125-145; 1II, Rome 1951, 483-493. A more complete and special bibliography will be found in the Historia generalis. ↑
- Primigeniae legislationis textus originales, no. 89: Liber memorialis, 391 ↑
- Cf. Boverius, Annales, I, 289. ↑
- Cf. Louis Antoine de Porrentruy, Correspondence de Mgr. de Belsunce eveque de Marseille, composee de lettres et de documents en partie inedits, Marseille 1911. ↑
- Cf. Historia generalis, II, 25-130; III, 493. ↑
- Cf. Historia generalis, I, 292-297; 11I2,147-165; III, 494-504. ↑
- Cf. Historia generalis, I, 272, 276; II/2, 129-130, 151; III, 481-82; Peter of Varzi, Apostolatus in carceribus: Acta congressus interprovincialis de hodiernis apostolatus necessitatibus, 114; 117. ↑
- Cf. Historia generalis, 11/2, 145-146. ↑
- Z. Boverius, Annales I, 510. ↑
- Cf. Historia generalis, I, 274-276; II!2, 145, 423. ↑
- Cf. Acta Congressus interprovincialis: De Hodiernis Apostolatus necessitatibus, (Rome, 21-27 Nov. 1948, Curia generalis, s.a./1951) This report is a little known mine of information about our tradition of service and witness as well as more recent experiments and suggestions for the future presented by experts in the field. ↑
- Cf. Historia generalis, III, 628; Acta congressus interprovincialis, 15, 20,23,42. ↑
- Cf. John Baptist of Farnese, Apostolatus in nosocomiis, prout ab Ordinisnostri exordiis praesertim in Italia exercetur, in Acta congressus interprovincialis, 106-113; Gabriel of Castel S. Giovanni, L’assistenza religiosa di San Francesco “E con S. Francesco a servizio dei sofferenti.” Atti del IX convegno nazionale PP. Cappuccini Ospedalieri. A cura di Oliviero Naldini, Florence, 1978. ↑
- Cf. Historia generalis, III, 476. ↑
- Ibid., 474-476. ↑
- Cf. Historia generalis, m, 472-482; Fernando of Riese Pio X/I cappucini oggi in Italia/ nelle activita apostolico-sociali, Rome 1968; Acta congressus interprovincialis, passim. ↑
- Andrew of Releco-Kerhuon, Experimentum quod dicitur “Pretres Ouvriers”; Acta congressus interprovincialis, 224-226; Damasus of Celle Ligure, Experimentum quod dicitur “Cappellani del lavoro” ibid., 227-231; Livius of Montevideo, Apostolatus in associationibus operariorum, ibid., 231-235. ↑
- Cf. Historia generalis, III, 279-481. ↑
- Cf. Acta congressus interprovincialis, 222; Clement Giadone, Relazione sulla “Casa del Sorriso” a Palermo, in Analecta O.F.M. Cap. 90 (1974), 145-150. ↑
- Cf. Liber Memorialis, 378, 383. ↑
- Cf. Edmund Kramer of Menasha, “Associatio Caritatis”, Charity Guild in civitate Detroit a nostratibus condita et moderata: Acta congressus interprovincialis, 103-105. ↑
- Cf. Historia generalis, III, 474; Senan of Castlegregory, Apostolatus per scripta typis edita vel notitias radiophonis evulgatas vel per scaenas cinematographica arte reproductas vel per alia recentiora inventa: Acta congressus interprovincialis, 200-208. ↑
- Acta Apostolicae Sedis, 20 (1928), 252; Analecta O.F.M. Cap. 44 (1928), 141. ↑
- Acta Apostolicae Sedis, 41 (1949), 65; Acta congressus interprovincialis, 269. ↑