Inspiration, Actualisation and Message of Lawrence of Brindisi

The Inspiration and Actualisation of the Message of Lawrence of Brindisi

By Costanzo Cargnoni OFM Cap

Translated by Lam Vu OFM Cap

St. Lawrence of Brindisi in the maturity of his spirituality and pastoral approach is perhaps the wonderful incarnation of all that characterises the originality and higher ideals of the Capuchin reform. In fact, he was a powerful popular preacher, and at the same time a learned theologian and biblical scholar. He was a fearless missionary and diplomat, polemicist and controversialist, and tireless pilgrim in the European regions from East to West and founder of leading provinces on the anti-Protestant Eastern front. He was a very prolific writer, ardent contemplative and mystic, with an exuberance of spiritual charisms that still impresses us today.

Perhaps because of these extraordinary human and spiritual qualities, his figure is not very popular. Even in his Order, this impression of exceptional nature persists towards him, so much so that modern historians, to trying to demythologise him and render him more human, tend to recall some of his toughness in defending his tried and tested methods and ideas of the Capuchin life in culturally diverse regions.

These impressions, however, are soon put to rest and clarified when one reads the well-rounded procedural depositions, where there are so many to choose from. The resulting material is in fact far from having been fully exploited in forming a complete and complex view of him, despite the formidable volumes by Arturo M. da Carmignano di Brenta, from which we have drawn the main texts reproduced here.

The testimonies are numerous and were collected five years after his death, starting with the diocesan processes of Monaco and Venice in 1624 and 1625, up to the informative and apostolic processes of Naples, Venice, Brindisi, Albenga, Genoa, Milan, Vicenza, Bassano, Verona, Villafranca del Bierzo in Spain. It is a vast complex of biographical and hagiographic information, recollections, judgments heartfelt and vivid reflections.

In the testimonies obtained from the diocesan (Monaco and Venice) and apostolic (Genoa, Naples, Vicenza and Milan) processes, even if the saint is exalted according to a traditional biographical and hagiographic scheme for his extraordinary human and spiritual gifts in the changing phases and innumerable events of his life, he is also present in the ordinariness life. Insight into him is gained by small details of extraordinary interest which allow his rich personality and his intense Franciscan and Capuchin spirituality to be deciphered.

He is a robust, imposing, tall and harmonious man, with a soul-piercing gaze. He is coincidentally a frail man, with aches and pains, often seriously sick and suffering from gout and podagra, especially in the last stage of his life.

Relentless against vices, he was very merciful to penitent, and he so greatly identified himself in the sufferings of others that he almost physically felt them in his own flesh to the point of crying with compassion.

Information gathered says that he hardly ever smiled, but almost always cried because of his gift of tears; at the same time, he was always cheerful and filled with serenity and peace.

A character with courage and confidence, even to the point of dragging an army into battle with his compelling appeal. He knew how to convince emperors, princes, and kings. But at the same time, he was always ready to follow the opinions of his fellow lay brothers with impressive humility and simplicity.

His presence attracted the crowds like a magnet, and yet he did everything to avoid them and escape from them like plague. He was always captivated in God and, at the same time, captivated by the people and the friars. He loved silence and contemplative solitude. But was always forced to speak at the pulpits, among the European courts, to the friars, the ecclesiastical prelates, the Jews, and the people, putting his linguistic skills to good use.

He was an anchorite always on a journey on the roads of the world, but was enclosed in his inner hermitage, as St Francis said, in continuous conversation with God, carrying with him a Crucifix, the beautiful Virgin, clothed in the sun and with the saints. And when dealing with various types of people, in his busy social tasks, he never interrupted this inner flow.

Prayer and study were the sources of his life and apostolic action, but more prayer than study. The Bible, the Passion of the Cross, a picture of Mary with the Child were his inseparable treasures even in his endless journeys. As General Minister, he inspected all the Capuchin friaries in Switzerland, France, Flanders, Spain and Italy, always on foot, even rejecting the possibility of mounting a “donkey”. With these itineraries of an ascetic marathon runner, he did not interrupt the strict regimen of fasting, short rest on the straw sack or on the ground, disciplines, participating in choral prayer day and night.

He was very humble and sincere like a child, but in the face of his responsibilities as minister and servant of the friars, he was decisive and assured in his commands. His temperament was a mixture of Franciscan tenderness of the contemplative soul and strength of authority in action. He was agile and ready to move from one challenge to another, acting promptly on every occasion.

It is these contrasts held in tension, and opposing tones that make Lawrence of Brindisi’s personality powerful. A striking figure, now as then, as Ilarino of Milano writes, the quantity and degree of his gifts, their constant development and the charisms of grace, their use always magnanimous in the many undertakings of the apostolate, of study to which he gives himself or in the assignments and offices to which Providence assigns him. In this pace and rhythm of his life, which spans from 1559 (July 22) to 1619 (July 22), he stands out as one the best representatives of the personages of the post-Tridentine age.

If his diplomatic enterprises in Bavaria, Spain and his missions in Bohemia and Austria with the epic battle of Alba Reale are remembered with admiration by the procedural texts, one fact, however, is above all pointed out: the length of his Eucharistic celebration and the profundity of his mystical contemplation as the soul of his apostolic action.

A witness reported the method used by the saint and suggested to the friars in his sermons during the canonical visits was: When he then spoke to the friars, he referred significantly to the words of our holy Rule, namely: “Let those who are illiterate not be anxious to learn, but let them pay attention to what they must desire above all else: to have the Spirit of the Lord and Its holy activity, to pray always to Him with a pure heart, to have humility and patience in persecution and infirmity, and to love those who persecute, rebuke and find fault with us, because the Lord says: Love your enemies…” (Later Rule 10:7-10). I heard Father Brindisi discussed these words in his visitation to the friars, and he showed that the core of our Rule was reduced to this perfection, and that, however, everyone had to practice it (n. 8711).

In conclusion, in the virtues and spirituality of St. Lawrence, his preaching, his work in defence of the Catholic faith against Protestants, Jews and Muslims, and his continuous commitment for the unification of Catholic faithful, and governments and for the protection of social justice, there was not only the highest synthesis of the mission of the Capuchin Order in its time, but also in its future history.

Also here, we can offer some reflections on different aspects of his life and gain insights for our renewal.

We begin with the theme of the “Capuchin charism,” which was restated in recent decades in the official reflections of the Order (General Chapters and Plenary Councils) in the endeavours to reformulate our Constitutions, and to assimilate them into the practice and ‘ecclesial life’ of today. We are convinced that our saints are like a mirror for us to know ourselves. Their teaching value is irreplaceable. They are truly the charism of the Order in practice. From their life it is possible to obtain a variety of elements which form what today is called the “identity” of the Capuchin friar. From here we can deduce the fundamental elements of the Order’s charism and, ultimately, the sure path for its authentic renewal. St. Lawrence of Brindisi, in the various aspects of his life, offers us many insights and motivations for our renewal.

1. Capuchin Charism

In the testimony of Br. Gaspare Gasparotti of Cassano d’Adda we read this point of spirituality that the saint considered heartfelt: “The charity that this father bore to his neighbours was unwavering. He loved everyone without prejudice, and although I know that even as a General, he had tough encounters, I never saw him resentful, indeed he did not even give the slightest sign of bitterness. Then when he spoke to the friars, he quoted the words of our holy Rule, namely: “Let those who are illiterate not be anxious to learn, but let them pay attention to what they must desire above all else: to have the Spirit of the Lord and Its holy activity, to pray always to Him with a pure heart, to have humility and patience in persecution and infirmity, and to love those who persecute, rebuke and find fault with us, because the Lord says: Love your enemies…” (Later Rule 10:7-10). I heard Father Brindisi discus these words in his visitation to the friars, and he showed that the core of our Rule was reduced to this perfection, and that, everyone had to practice it”.

He continues, “In all the time that I have known Father Brindisi, I always saw him observant of our holy Rule, and I have never seen him or heard from others that he did anything to the contrary. Thus, concerning our Constitutions, he showed himself to be rigorous and zealous in observing them, nor did he leave anything out in promoting among the friars the pure and full observance of our Rule and Constitutions. He was most exemplary.”

When as Father General preached to the friars, I, who was present several times, saw and heard that he was zealous for the glory of God and for regular observance. And I remember that in Lyon in France, at the Provincial Chapter, he gave a sermon, persuading the friars that every day they should renew their Profession of Vows among themselves, so that with such a motive and stimulus they might be more fervent in observing our holy Rule. And these sermons of his were filled with such spirit, efficacy and such lively explanations, that they inflamed the heart.”

The Capuchin identity was studied, as we know, by PCO IV, from which then the new Constitutions derived a synthesis in no. 4, which proposed seven main points: in the first place prayer, especially contemplative; then poverty, personal and communal; then austerity of life and joyful penance in the love of the Lord’s cross; then fraternity in its many ranges of expression: cordiality, mercy, compassion, and a sense of belonging in sharing and seeking to be together; then apostolic dynamism in a spirit of service in its various forms, first of all preaching and evangelization.

These points confirm the testimony of the holiness of St Lawrence of Brindisi. First of all his life of prayer and Eucharistic contemplation immersed in a Marian dimension.

2. His prayer life was impressive, as Giammaria of Monteforte testifies when the saint was in Prague after his generalate (1602-1605): “And there he began to practice more particular devotions than he used to, for he was then free from prelacy and spent considerable time in saying Mass, which sometimes would last for 3 or 4 hours; and after Mass he would stay for 3 or 4 hours at prayer; and if he had not been disturbed by the Ambassadors of Spain, Venice and Florence, who held him in great esteem and honoured him greatly, he would have been there much longer. And after vespers he would go again to prayer if he was not disturbed. And he would stay there until the prayer of the friars was over, which lasted an hour after compline. And in those prayers, absorbed by his great spiritual devotion, he would cry out in a loud voice, which was heard by everyone, even by the most famous ambassadors who were there at times to see him. They asked the friars what he was doing, and the friars said that he was praying. And this happened not once or twice, but several times, and they still desired to see him.” These were truly impressive example of the prayer life of the saint who could not contain the irruption of the Divine in his being, for which he was compelled to cry out.

In the Mass “the father began to extend it after the offertory, called the “Suscipiat”. The affections that he showed were many and varied, such as, at times, of suffering and compassion, at other times of love, at other times of amazement and admiration, at other times of enthusiasm and spiritual joy and the like.”

Testimony of Br. Remigio of Bozzolo: “I have seen and heard from others of how he was frequent at prayer. One could say of him what is said of St. Clare, that orationis studium habebat amicum (“Legenda sanctae Clarae”, 4: FF n. 3159). And he spent considerable time on it because besides the Mass with which he spent very long time, after vespers he would go to prayer and would stay up to two, three and four hours, and sometimes more or less, with sighs, groans and cries. And when after Mass he went to the table to eat, he would still sigh; once a priest noticed and told me, here in the refectory of Munich, saying: “Even now Father Brindisi still sighs.” I believe that it proceeded from nothing other than the great love and affection of spirit that he had in his soul. And when he was Provincial of the Province of Venice, in his sermons to the friars, he would always urge them to spend time in holy prayer with devotion. And by the example of father Saint Francis, he motivated the friars to prayer by saying: “Our father Saint Francis had particular grace, as many other saints, to pray frequently and at length, indeed he was almost continuous in his prayer”. And therefore, he told the friars that they should be solicitous to imitate our holy father.”

3. His Mass with Mary and Marian devotion. Again according to the testimony of Br. Giammaria of Monteforte: “I also want to say this, when he celebrated Mass, he wanted, if possible, an image of the most holy Virgin Mary with the Child in her arms above the altar, he was very devoted to the Mother of God, and encouraged devotion to her in everyone; and when he did anything, he would say that everything was for Our Lady’s prayer; and, whenever he could, he would say the Mass of the Most Holy Virgin Mary, Mother of God, our Lady.”

The devotion that Father Brindisi had for the Blessed Virgin was infinite and so great that I consider it inexplicable to me. From what I was able to observe, after God, his thoughts and affections were directed to the Mother of God. This was the joy and happiness of his heart; to this he continually resorted; and with those he dealt with, he would always remind them of the Mother of God, and he sought the opportunity to persuade them of the devotion of the Blessed Virgin. And he used to call blessed are those who devote to the Mother of God; and the older he got, the more he grew in this devotion and affection. And he was reduced to the point that, in his last years, as soon as he heard talk either about God or His Mother, he immediately remained as if out of himself, withdrawn, in such a way that, although the persons with whom he dealt were important, he could not attend to them, but remained entirely absorbed for a quarter of an hour absorbed and withdrawn. I was witness to this several times, and I saw and observed everything. I heard many of those dignitaries, such as the Lord Duke Doria, some Venetian nobles and others, who were at various times with Father (Lawrence) when what was described above occurred, and the dignitaries would complain: “We have lost the conversation with the father; he remains completely absorbed in God and in the most blessed Virgin” (deposit. Proc. Ap. of Milan).

Since Father had all his trust in God, then in the most blessed Virgin and other saints, he tried to encourage everyone to put their hope and trust in them. But because the Mother of God is the mother of mercy and all graces, for this reason whenever he spoke on this subject he always proposed to all devotion to the most Blessed Virgin. When the sick and afflicted came to him, he would advise them to have devotion to the Mother of God. When he blessed anyone, he used to make the sign of the holy cross saying, “The Lord and also the Virgin Mary bless you”; or rather, “May the Mother of God bless you.” To possessed people, he used these words, “Ecce crucem Domini, fugite partes adversae.”[1] Nothing else can be said except that Father Brindisi was filled with ardent charity both towards God and his neighbour. In all the time that I have known Father, I have never seen any action in him that I can judge as sin. In celebrating Holy Mass, after the consecration, he was so filled with burning fire of charity and love of God that it seemed that everything was on fire; and, sighing, he radiated like flames that made the heart of whoever was present flare up. All his desires, as far as I could see, were for the love of God and to ensure that He was loved and served by all. And after that his love for the most blessed Virgin and then all the saints and in particular some devotees of her. For the health and well-being of his neighbours he would have given his life”.

Testimony of Br. John of Fossombrone: “I say that in his cell and at the altar where he celebrated Mass, he always had some devout image of the Blessed Virgin; and when on a journey, whenever he entered the cell prepared for him for the first time, or celebrated Mass at some other altar where he had not celebrated before, the first thing he would do was to look for an image of the Blessed Virgin; and, in seeing it, one could see in his face the delight he felt in his heart. Therefore, the friars, to console him, always placed in the cell where he was to stay, or on the altar where he was to celebrate Mass, some beautiful image of the Blessed Virgin; and, if they didn’t have it in the house, they would borrow it. Before the image, Br Lawrence Brindisi celebrated with such fervour and devotion that, due to his inner affection, he was compelled to gush out in an external voice of joy: “Ah, my Lady!”; repeating these words several times: “Blessed is he who loves you! Blessed is he who carries you in his heart!”, and similar with other affections. I say that, when he preached, he always invited people to devotion to Mary. He instructed them that they should say, “Glorified and blessed be the name of Jesus and Mary.” These words which he expressed were of such sweetness that a devout person had many of them printed as little cards, which were kept by the people with great devotion.

Deposition of Br. Filippo of Custoza: “This then is very true, that the Reverend Father instructed everyone, both with words and example, to honour and venerate the name of the Most Holy Virgin; and, as a manner of speaking, I heard him a hundred times a day saying those words and blessings described in the article, namely: “Per signum sanctissimae crucis et per sanctum nomen Iesus et Mariae, liberat te Deus.[2] And again: “Nos cum prole pia benedicat Virgo Maria”.[3] Furthermore, on the topic of temptations, I heard him instructed people to hope and trust in the Lord and utter these words: “Per purissimam virginitatem Iesus et Mariae, libera me, Domine, a spiritu fornicationis”.[4] Additionally, that in the letters he wrote to some persons, his first word was always: “Praised be the name of Jesus and Mary”. And I have read many of these letters of his.”

Deposition of Br. Ambrogio of Florence: “In our journeys, in mud or snow (as we made many trips together in Italy and Germany), we never heard the slightest word of concern or tiredness or anything about the journey from him, but always praising God. Our trips which weren’t very tiring, we either said the Office of the Madonna, or sang some praise to the Blessed Virgin, and in particular that of Petrarch’s ‘Beautiful Virgin’[5]; and with such feeling that many times he would enter into a trance; and then he would resume at the verse where he left off. And these were almost continuous exercises that he did, besides reciting the crown of the Blessed Virgin. He liked to be cheerful during the journey; but it was a joy that led rather to devotion than otherwise, seeing with what simplicity, sincerity and purity he made the journey”.

4. Elements of his daily life. An example: The saint was in Loreto for the entire Lent of 1602, when Br. Girolamo Geradoni of Castelferretti († 1626) was Minister General. During this stay, Br. Marco of Capodistria gave a curious testimony in the Apostolic Process of Venice: “I saw and observed that his regular practice regarding his life was to enter the chapel two hours before dawn and celebrate first, and then attend the holy Masses until hour for none; and about the 23rd hour he returned to the chapel, where he remained in prayer for another two or three hours. And in the course of the day, after a little religious dialogue, he delighted in going in the fields to look for certain herb roots, which he used to eat. Cf. Arturo, San Lorenzo IV/2, 366s, doc. 1159.

“The life of Father Brindisi was all about prayer when I met him back in Germany, and I saw him spending many hours in prayer, especially before he went up to the pulpit”. (p. Filippo of Soragna).

5. Passion and Cross. “This father was also very devoted to the most holy Cross. He loved it ardently, always carrying his cross in his heart and continuously wore, day and night, a cross full of sacred relics attached to his neck, even while walking and doing work. I often heard him speak with great fervour about the Passion of our Lord, both privately and in sermons; and I saw him with my own eyes wearing the cross around his neck, which was about two palms long, with which he was accustomed at times to use to bless the people after his sermons.”

An integral part of our charism. Pope St. John XXIII, who initiated the Second Vatican Council, in the first year of his pontificate elevated St. Lawrence of Brindisi to Doctor of the Universal Church, with the significant title of “Apostolic Doctor”. This means science and study which breathes in the Capuchin Spirit, must always breathe with apostolic inspiration: that is, to know in order to love (as the old Capuchin Constitutions command those who dedicated themselves to study and pray), thus, “The love of Christ impels me, at the thought that one died for all” (2 Cor 5:14-15): it is the motivation of the apostolate, evangelization, mission, service and consummation in the Church for the salvation of the brethren.

6. Preaching. “I saw Father Brindisi when he was a Commissioner General in Bohemia, as I said above and I heard and saw when he preached the Catholic faith against heretics: which he did with such fervour, that he looked like an apostle”.

“And I have seen many times, when he wanted to go to preach, he went first to pray, valuing that over study and in preparation for the sermon” (test. by Br. Arsenio of Venice).

“I have known the above-mentioned Br Lawrence of Brindisi, from the time that I have been his companion, both during the time of his generalate for the visitation, and from listening to his sermons. He was a man of most profound knowledge, subtle intelligence, and inspired memory. During the Lenten season, when he preached in the church of the Holy Spirit in this city for Lent, I never saw him being occupied in study either about Lent or other books, but he was only occupied all day long in prayer. He preached twice a day: once about the current Gospel, and the other of the blessed Virgin. And the prayer was in this way: that is, before and after the sermon, he remained on his knees praying before the image of the glorious Virgin, and he remained there all day, except at mealtimes or half an hour of rest. Then in the evening, in preparation for the following day’s sermons, he would close himself up inside a room, in the dark, to pray, and I heard him groan and cry bitterly. He would not leave his room, nor cease from praying, if he was not called by me to have breakfast”. (Br. Giambattista of Squillace). This ascetic and contemplative regime was his permanent disposition and preparation for preaching.

Testimony of Br. Bernard of Naples: “And I know this preaching was almost miraculous, because at that time he was our General and, apart from the occupation of this office, he never studied either printed or handwritten books; but he obtained everything with the study of holy prayer and the depth of his memory, closing himself up in the morning for four or five hours before going to preach, kneeling in a room, and in the evening in the same way kneeling without opening a book for two or three hours, as his companions told me” (Lent of 1605 in Naples).

Testimony of Br. Gv of Fossombrone: “He preached using, for the most part, only memory and the study of prayer. Once, when I spoke with him about this fact, asking him how he could preach without studying, and he said to me, ‘When I begin to preach, my intellect, my memory, opens.’ And he went no further, but with a gesture of his hand signified that it was as if he saw in a book what he was going to preach… He was so quick in dealing with Holy Scripture, as much in quoting the Hebrew text as the Latin, that it seemed he had the whole Bible in mind. With the knowledge of the Bible, he found what he wanted. He always kept the Bible in his cell and carried it on his travels, not only Latin but also Hebrew, almost always having one or the other in hand.”

Source of his sermons, as testified by Br. Andrea of Venezia: “It is said Father Lawrence never studied any other book except the Holy Bible, always kneeling before the image of the most Blessed Virgin, with tears, sobs and sighs. According to what the Holy Spirit inspired him while he was on his knees, he wrote down the concepts that he then preached, without studying another book. (This is how his numerous manuscripts of sermons which were written mostly in Latin must have come about.) And rising from prayer, he made a most profound adoration of the Blessed Virgin.”

7. Persecuted by the crowd. It was impressive the crowd of people who sought him out, followed him, without giving him a break, day and night. So much so that he could hardly eat, nor could he celebrate Mass calmly. People wanted his blessing and entered the friaries where he stayed, climbed trees, and with ladders, as in Melzo. They tried to get into his cell. Many sick people got healed. They wanted to have everything that he touched, such as bread, handkerchiefs wet with tears during Mass; done with a force that could become dangerous both to the house and to the saint himself. Like in Naples when people wanted to have their rosary beads touched by the saint and not being able to, they tied them in bundles and with ropes made them reach out to touch the saint, often with insane and fanatical violence.

8. Brindisi. The saint wanted to return to Brindisi, where he had built a monastery for the Capuchin Poor Clare’s Sisters, but he was never able to make this trip, due to various circumstances, for which he said: “I believe it is the Lord’s will that I no longer go to Brindisi, because twice I set out on a journey, and I always had to leave it out.”


Return to the Tradition

A recent volume published by Laterza (M. Veneziani, Di padre in figlio. Elogio della Tradizione. [I Robinson/Letture). Roma-Bari, Laterza 2001. XI-215 p.) explains how “Tradition” is especially necessary today, when “our time – we read – seems to be that of the absolute present. With the large long-term projects abolished, we are erasing history and with it the ties to our past. Yet Tradition is indispensable for every society and it is necessary to return to it in order to re-establish that fundamental network of relationships which bind fathers to children”.

Renewed formation for a new evangelization

I read in a brochure of the CISM, Spiritualità e missione, p. 48: “There is a great need to transmit the authentic spiritual and apostolic values of the Institute in formation, with a renewed sense of identity open to communion, but with the clear aim of fostering a strong and not vague specificity, a charismatic identification with the person of the Founder and with the family, his history, his concrete reality today, capable of resisting the political apathy and superficiality that make vocations fragile. If the great values of spirituality and mission are not passed on, we risk filling our homes with people without identity and without love for their families, unable to resist the trials and thousands of temptations that a weak-minded society offers today and with a fragile identity”.

Therefore, renew one’s own spirituality, along the two lines suggested by the Council and the Pope: foundational charism and spiritual patrimony.[6]

♦ Returning to the apostolic itinerancy of missionary preaching: the “ministerium Verbi” must once again take first place in formation and studies.[7]

♦ Returning to the contemplative dimension and silence of the Eucharistic community spiritual and fraternal retreat.[8]

♦Returning to fraternity as active poverty and loving obedience against modern individualism and activism.[9]

♦ Returning to the study of wisdom, Lectio Divina of the Word, historical Lectio of our life as a purification of memory to regain the interior light, certainty and joy of being Capuchin Friars Minor.[10]

♦Returning to the spirituality of “service.” The manifold testimonies of holiness in the Order, the powerful testimony of St. Lawrence of Brindisi who was “sought after” by the Christian people, make it clear that the Capuchin friar is popular and contemporary because of a law of contrast: “It is precisely this distance (from the world) that makes these good friars close,” said Paul VI. Aren’t we too close, perhaps today, to the spirit of the world (mass-media and consumerism) be the cause that makes us distant, no longer meaningful, no longer attractive, with the consequence of diminishing in vocations, etc.?[11]

  1. “Behold the cross of the Lord, flee to the opposite.”
  2. “By the sign of the most holy cross and by the holy name of Jesus and Mary, may God deliver you.”
  3. “May the Virgin Mary bless us with pious children.”
  4. “Through the most pure virginity of Jesus and Mary, deliver me, Lord, from the spirit of fornication.”
  5. ‘Canzone to the Virgin’ by Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374).
  6. Cf. i volumi de I frati Cappuccini. Documenti e testimonianze del primo secolo, 5 voll. Roma-Perugia 1988-1993; C. Cargnoni, L’immagine di san Francesco nella formazione dell’Ordine cappuccino, in L’immagine di Francesco nella storiografia dall’umanesimo all’Ottocento. Atti del IX Convegno internazionale. Assisi, 15-16-17 ottobre 1981. Assisi 1983, 109-168; anche in Anal.O.F.M. Cap. 99 (1983) 242-262; Id., L’immagine di S. Francesco nella riforma cappuccina, in Francesco d’Assisi nella storia: Secoli XVI-XIX. Atti del secondo convegno di studi per l’VIII Centenario della nascita di S. Francesco (1182-1982), Assisi, 14-16 sett. 1982. A cura di S. Gieben. Roma 1983, 25-53.
  7. Cf. C. Cargnoni, La predicazione dei frati cappuccini nell’opera di riforma promossa dal concilio di Trento, in Metodologia dell’annuncio. Atti del Convegno, Milano 27-29 sett. 1983. (Strumenti per l’evangelizzazione, 1). Milano, Ed. Cammino, [1984], 49-86; e a parte, a cura della CISPCap. (Sussidi Formazione Permanente – Nuova Serie, 6), Roma 1984. 21 cm., 48 pp.; Id., Trattati, manuali e metodi di predicazione dei cappuccini del ‘600, in La predicazione cappuccina nel Seicento, a cura di Gabriele Ingegneri. Roma, Istituto Storico dei Cappuccini, 1997, 113-174; Id., Le quarantore ieri e oggi. Viaggio nella storia della predicazione cattolica, della devozione popolare e della spiritualità cappuccina, in Italia Franc. 61 (1986) 325-460; e a parte: Le Quarantore ieri e oggi (Sussidi di formazione permanente – Nuova Serie, 10). Roma, CispCap., 1986. 21 cm., 144 p.; Id., La predicazione apostolica di Girolamo da Narni, in Girolamo Mautini da Narni e l’Ordine dei Cappuccini fra ‘500 e ‘600. A cura di V. Criscuolo. (Bibliotheca Seraphico-Capuccina, 56). Roma, istituto Storico dei Cappuccini, 1998, 331-421; Id., La predicazione popolare e riformistica di Giacinto Natta da Casale Monferrato († 1622), in Fede e libertà. Scritti in onore di p. Giacomo Martina S.J. A cura di Maurilio Guasco – Alberto Monticone – Pietro Stella. Brescia. Morcelliana, 1998, 21-57; Id., L’apostolato della predicazione: Bernardino Ferraris da Balvano, in I frati minori cappuccini in Basilicata e nel Salernitano fra ’500 e ’600. (Bibl. Seraph.-Cap., 57). A cura di V. Criscuolo. Roma, Istituto Storico dei Cappuccini, 1999, 361-408.
  8. C. Cargnoni, Preghiera: IV. I Francescani, in Dizionario degli Istituti di Perfezione VII, Roma 1983, 628-651; e a parte: Esperienze e vita di preghiera nella storia dell’Ordine francescano (Sussidi formazione permanente, 13). Roma, C.I.S.P.Cap., [1980]. 22 cm., 40 [4] p.; Id., Riflessioni sulla vita contemplativa nell’esortazione apostolica “Vita consecrata”, in Religiosi in Italia (Roma) n.s. 2 (1997) n. 303, 194*-206*; Id., Dimensione con templativa della nostra vita francescana, in Boll. Uff. per i Frati Min. Capp. della Prov. Serafica. Anno L, N. 1 (Numero speciale 1984): Capitolo Straordinario, Assisi 2-7, 23 gennaio 1984. [S. Maria degli Angeli-Assisi, Tip. Porziuncola], 1984, 101-120; Id., I primi lineamenti di una “scuola cappuccina di devozione”, in Italia Franc. 59 (1984) 111-140.
  9. C. Cargnoni, Le radici della fraternità, in Le relazioni fraterne. Corso di formazione permanente 1993. Firenze, Provincia Toscana dei Frati Minori Cappuccini – Tipografia “San Francesco”, [1994], 33-4; Id., La fraternità nella storia dell’Ordine, in Le relazioni fraterne cit., 27-32; Id., La fraternità nelle ultime costituzioni, ibid., 43-52; Id., Fraternitá e itineranza nelle fonti francescane per una integritá del carisma, in Il Vangelo cammina con il Vangelo. Atti del convegno-ritiro del 1 febb.-4 febb. 1999 ad Assisi. Bologna, Grafiche Dehoniane – Segretariato Nazionale per l’evangelizzazione OFMCap., 1999, 13-39; Id., Modi della comunicazione della ‘parola’ nella tradizione francescano-cappuccina: valori per il presente, ibid., 44-73;
  10. C. Cargnoni, Cultura bonaventuriana nei cappuccini tra ’500 e ’600, in Bartolomeo Barbieri da Castelvetro (1615-1697), un cappuccino alla scuola di san Bonaventura nell’Emilia del ’600. A cura di A. Maggioli e P. Maranesi. (Bibliotheca Seraphico-Capuccina, 55). Roma, Istituto Storico dei Cappuccini, 1998, 81-122; Id., “Libri devoti” e spiritualità, in Tra biblioteca e pulpito. Itinerari culturali dei frati minori cappuccini. (Città e territorio, 5). Messina, Biblioteca Provinciale dei Cappuccini, 1997, 101-129.
  11. Cf. Sulle orme dei santi. Il Santorale cappuccino: Santi, Beati. Venerabili- Servi di Dio. Roma 2000, IX-XXIV; Id., Rinnovamento della vita cappuccina tra ambiguità spiritualistiche, tradizione e profezia, in Italia Franc. 61 (1986) 41-68; Id., Le vocazioni all’Ordine cappuccino dagli inizi al 1619, in Le vocazioni all’Ordine francescano dalle origini ad oggi. (Studi scelti di francescanesimo, 8). Napoli, Tipografia Laurenziana, 1983, 89-122; Id., L’apostolato dei cappuccini come “redundantia di amore”, in Italia Franc. 53 (1978) 559-593; e, a parte, in: La vita dei frati cappuccini ripensata nel 450° anniversario della loro riforma. Conferenze tenute al convegno nazionale (Roma, 25-30 sett. 1978). Roma. L’Italia Francescana – CISPCap., 1978, 51-85; id., Rinnovamento dell’Ordine cappuccino. Tensioni, prospettive, confronti di attualità, in Italia Francescana 55 (1980) 419-436; Id., Rinnovamento della vita cappuccina tra ambiguità spiritualistiche, tradizione e profezia, in Italia Franc. 61 (1986) 41-68